Paris

Paris

Capital city of France

No article has been written about this topic yet.
Paste a URL about this topic to auto-extract knowledge.
Visit our Writing Guide for help on how to write about a topic,
and check out an example of a well filled out topic page.

No article has been written about this topic yet.
Be the first one to add some text.

Loading AI-assisted edit mode...

Timeline

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
April 9, 2021
WebWire
15 July - 17 October 2021, , For public information call or visit tate.org.uk , , Supported by John J. Studzinski CBE, with additional support from the Sophie Taeuber-Arp Exhibition Supporters Circle, Tate Americas Foundation, Tate Patrons and Tate Members One of the most innovative artists and designers of the 20th-century avant-garde, Sophie Taeuber-Arp (1889-1943) challenged the borders between abstract art, design and craft. Tate Modern's major exhibition will be the first in the UK to tr...
Phoebe Weston
April 9, 2021
the Guardian
Research warns that large proportions of endemic marine and mountain species face extinction
Marlowe Hood
April 9, 2021
phys.org
Unless nations dramatically improve on carbon cutting pledges made under the 2015 Paris climate treaty, the planet's richest concentrations of animal and plant life will be irreversibly ravaged by global warming, scientists warned Friday.
Vigouroux, R. J., Duroure, K., Vougny, J., Albadri, S., Kozulin, P., Herrera, E., Nguyen-Ba-Charvet, K., Braasch, I., Suarez, R., Del Bene, F., Chedotal, A.
April 9, 2021
Science
In primates, visual connections are bilateral: Each eye sends neural connections to both sides of the brain. Vigouroux et al. looked at the evolutionary underpinnings of the bilateral visual system. A close look at the connections between the retina and the brain in a variety of fish species representing a span of evolutionary divergence revealed that contralateral connections seem to be universal. The ipsilateral connections, which add to the contralateral connections to form a bilateral visual system, arrived later in evolution but before the transition to land-dwelling animals. Science , this issue p. [150][1] ### INTRODUCTION Depth perception [stereoscopic or three-dimensional (3D) vision] exists in vertebrate and nonvertebrate species and has been linked to binocularity, the partial overlap of the visual fields, and to disparities of the images coming from both eyes. In mammals, the right and left sides of the brain receive visual inputs from both eyes and compute their differences to extract 3D visual information. Mammals with front-facing eyes, such as primates and carnivores, possess a high fraction of ipsilateral fibers and therefore a higher degree of binocular overlap, whereas lateral-eyed prey mammals have a small amount of ipsilateral retinal axons and a more limited binocular overlap. This prevalent model also assumes that ipsilateral projections evolved within amphibians first and were absent in fishes. However, isolated and often conflicting data reported the presence of ipsilateral retina connections in fishes, without any clear correlation with eye position or predatory behavior. ### RATIONALE We decided to systematically investigate the presence of ipsilateral and contralateral visual projections in a panel of teleost and non-teleost fishes by using advanced histological methods and whole-mount brain imaging. We sampled a large spectrum of fish species, varying for eye position, predatory behavior, and evolutionary history. We further evaluated in fishes the level of conservation of the genetic program that, in mammals, is thought to specify ipsilateral visual projections. ### RESULTS By injecting fluorescent axonal tracers in the eyes of 11 fish species and imaging their brains after optical clearing, we analyzed their patterns or retinal connectivities at high resolution. Only contralateral projections were found in most teleost fishes. However ipsilateral projections were present in the most basally branching teleost fish and in non-teleosts. In the non-teleost spotted gar, we detected a proportion of ipsilateral fibers comparable to what was previously reported in rodents. The presence of ipsilateral connections did not correlate with eye position or the life history of the individual species. Ipsilateral visual projections were also present in lungfish, the closest living fish relative of tetrapods, including mammals. In mammals, the genetic program driving ipsilateral retina connectivity is initiated by the transcription factor Zic2. We analyzed ZIC2 expression in humans and showed that it is expressed in the temporal retina quadrant where ipsilateral projecting cells are located. By contrast, no Zic2 expression was detected in the spotted gar retina, despite the substantial proportion of ipsilateral projection in this species. Zic2 is also absent in retinal neurons of zebrafish, a teleost with only contralateral visual projections. However, we showed that ectopically expressing Zic2 in the zebrafish retina could induce the formation of ipsilateral connections. ### CONCLUSION Our data reveal that ipsilateral retina projections are a widespread feature in the fish visual system, with many species having a proportion of ipsilateral projections comparable to those in several mammals. Unlike in mammals, the presence of ipsilateral projections in fish does not correlate with animal life history or eye position in the head, but rather with phylogenetic position in the piscine tree of life. Ipsilateral visual projections are present in all non-teleost fish branches and thus were likely ancestral and then lost in modern teleosts. Because we further detected ipsilateral projections in the lungfish, a close relative to tetrapods, we propose that ipsilateral projections were present already in the last common ancestor of bony vertebrates. Although Zic2 is dispensable for ipsilaterally projecting cell specification in the gar retina, it is able to reactivate a genetic program that specifies the formation of these cells in zebrafish, where they are normally not present, further supporting deep homology of this trait among both aquatic and terrestrial bony vertebrates. ![Figure][2] Evolution history of visual system bilaterality. (Top) Simplified phylogenetic tree of vertebrates. Most teleost lineages lack ipsilateral visual projections, but in the most basally branching ray-finned fish and in lobe-finned fish, eyes project to both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the brain, as in tetrapods. (Bottom) Schematic drawings of visual system connectivity in a teleost, two non-teleosts (gar and lungfish), and a tetrapod. Left and right retinal projections are shown in orange and blue, respectively. In most vertebrates, camera-style eyes contain retinal ganglion cell neurons that project to visual centers on both sides of the brain. However, in fish, ganglion cells were thought to innervate only the contralateral side, suggesting that bilateral visual projections appeared in tetrapods. Here we show that bilateral visual projections exist in non-teleost fishes and that the appearance of ipsilateral projections does not correlate with terrestrial transition or predatory behavior. We also report that the developmental program that specifies visual system laterality differs between fishes and mammals, as the Zic2 transcription factor, which specifies ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells in tetrapods, appears to be absent from fish ganglion cells. However, overexpression of human ZIC2 induces ipsilateral visual projections in zebrafish. Therefore, the existence of bilateral visual projections likely preceded the emergence of binocular vision in tetrapods. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.abe7790 [2]: pending:yes
Pernod Ricard USA
April 8, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Pernod Ricard North America today announced the appointment of Lani Montoya, a company veteran who has held leadership roles in both the U.S....
ASHOK SHARMA
April 7, 2021
news.yahoo.com
Prime Minister Narendra Modi told U.S. climate envoy John Kerry that India was committed to meeting its climate change pledges, and Kerry said the U.S. would...
Ashok Sharma
April 7, 2021
phys.org
India's prime minister on Wednesday told U.S. Special Presidential Envoy on Climate John Kerry that New Delhi is committed to meeting its pledges under the 2015 Paris climate change agreement and that it is on track to meet them.
ASHOK SHARMA
April 7, 2021
AP NEWS
NEW DELHI (AP) -- India's prime minister on Wednesday told U.S. Special Presidential Envoy on Climate John Kerry that New Delhi is committed to meeting its pledges under the 2015 Paris climate...
Sarah Al-Arshani
April 6, 2021
news.yahoo.com
France went into a four-week lockdown last week as the country struggled to contain a surge in COVID-19 cases.
The Economist
April 3, 2021
The Economist
It's the other greenhouse gas
March 26, 2021
clinicaltrials.gov
Risk of Contamination by COVID-19 During Oral Care With Aerosolization - Full Text View.
Henry Samuel
April 5, 2021
The Telegraph
Allegations some ministers took part at €460 evenings involving meals of caviar and langoustines
AFP
April 2, 2021
CTVNews
The World Bank adopted a new Climate Change Action Plan that will boost financing aimed at reducing emissions to align its policies with the Paris climate agreement, the bank said Friday.
Anna Pujol-Mazzini
March 31, 2021
The Telegraph
Pressure is growing on the French president to tighten restrictions, but it is not clear whether a third nationwide lockdown will be imposed
Fiona Harvey Environment correspondent
March 30, 2021
the Guardian
Exclusive: scientists write to ministers and supreme court over recent ruling in Heathrow case
Romain Dillet
March 29, 2021
TechCrunch
Meet Singular, a new VC firm based in Paris that just finished raising its initial fund. The firm was founded by two former Alven partners -- Raffi Kamber and Jérémy Uzan. They have some ambitious goals and an interesting investment model that could help them remain involved even during late-stage rounds. Overall, the firm raised [...]
Romain Dillet
March 29, 2021
TechCrunch
Meet Singular, a new VC firm based in Paris that just finished raising its initial fund. The firm was founded by two former Alven partners -- Raffi Kamber and Jérémy Uzan. They have some ambitious goals and an interesting investment model that could help them remain involved even during late-stage rounds. Overall, the firm raised [...]
By The Associated Press
March 28, 2021
AP NEWS
PARIS -- Critical care doctors in Paris say surging coronavirus infections could soon overwhelm their ability to care for the sick in the French capital's hospitals, possibly forcing them to choose...
The Associated Press
March 26, 2021
CTVNews
Shares opened higher in Europe after gains in Asia on Friday driven by hopes for a strong recovery from the pandemic.
March 23, 2021
WebWire
Why did you decide to put your Climate Transition Action Plan before a shareholder vote? The two biggest threats the world currently faces are climate change and social inequality - threats that are deeply intertwined. Climate change is not only an environmental crisis but one which will impact the lives and livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people around the world. The implications of climate change for both our business and our consumers will be profound. It threatens our whole...
SHOW MORE
Golden logo
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0; additional terms apply. By using this site, you agree to our Terms & Conditions.