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Cherry plum

Cherry plum

Fruit woody plant; a species of the genus Plum of the Plum subfamily of the Pink family. One of the original forms of homemade plum.

Etymology

According to M. Fasmer, the word cherry plum comes from the Azerbaijani aluča — "small plum", as well as "a fine variety of garden plums". This term came into the Russian language in the XIX century from Azerbaijani, but the Azerbaijani word itself is an Iranism.

Systematics

H. V. Kovalev in 1955 distinguished not one, but several species of cherry plum, united in the Cerasiferae cycle.

According to The Plant List database, currently only Prunus sogdiana is considered a separate species.

Botanical description

Prickly branched multi-stemmed trees, sometimes shrubs, with thin brownish-green shoots, 3-10 m high.

The leaves are elliptical, pointed to the tip.

The flowers are white or pink, single. Blooms since the last decade of March.

Fruits are rounded juicy in a state of ripeness - yellow, pink, red, purple or almost black drupes up to 3 cm across, sometimes elongated or flattened, with a slight waxy coating and a weak longitudinal groove and without it. Ripen in June - September.

Karyotype: 2n=16.

Distribution and habitat

Cherry plum flowers

In its wild form and in culture, the cherry plum is widespread in mountainous areas on the Tien Shan, the Balkans, Central and Asia Minor, Iran, the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia, Crimea, Moldova and southern Ukraine.

Cherry plum is cultivated in Russia (in the Krasnodar Territory, in Rostov, Belgorod, Smolensk, Kursk, Voronezh, Bryansk and other regions), in Ukraine, it is cultivated throughout Belarus, in Asian countries and in Western Europe.

Economic significance and use

Collected cherry plum

Cherry plum and its cultivated varieties are used as a fruit crop. The yield of an adult tree is up to 300 kg. The fruits are sweet and sour, used fresh, baked and in canned form (compote, syrups, jam, jam, jelly, oriental pastille - pita bread from sun-dried puree of mashed plums, marmalade, juice, wine). Cherry plum fruits come in different colors: yellow, pink, orange, red, purple and even variegated. The essence for lemonades is made from the juice. Fruits (including unripe ones) are used in the Caucasus as a seasoning for soups, giving the dishes a pleasant acid[2]. The main component of the Tkemali sauce.

The fruits contain 5-7% sugars, 4-7% citric acid, up to 15% pectin substances, 6-17 mg% vitamin A.

Cherry plum seedlings are used as a rootstock for peach, plum and apricot.

The plant is very decorative at the time of flowering, so it is used when laying gardens and in landscape design.

Honey plant.

A non-drying fatty oil used in medicine is obtained from the seeds of cultivated plants. It is also used as a therapeutic and dietary remedy for cough and throat diseases.

It is not eaten by pets. In the middle of summer, the fruits along with the bones are eaten by a bear, and in August by wild boars.

The wood is used for small carpentry and turning crafts[2].

In culture

Cherry plum is propagated by cuttings, layering, grafting and seeds. To obtain a root-related planting material, varieties of cherry plum and Russian plum should be propagated with woody cuttings, with the exception of hard-to-root varieties 'Angeleno', 'Tent', 'Late Comet', 'Found', 'Melon', which should be propagated with green cuttings.

Hybrids

Russian Russian plum, or Russian plum

Russian Russian plum, or Russian plum (Latin Prunus ×rossica Erem.) is a new stone culture created in Russia in the XX century as a result of hybridization of cherry plum and Chinese plum. It combines high productivity and endurance of cherry plum with large fruit and good taste qualities. Russian plums are registered under the generic name Cherry Plum.

Some varieties: 'Golden Scythians', 'Cleopatra', 'Kuban Comet', 'Gift to St. Petersburg', 'Traveler'.

Plumcote

In Russia, they crossed a Russian plum (hybrid cherry plum) with an ordinary apricot and gave the hybrid the name plumkot. Plumes are hardy, productive, they have a semi-detached bone, fruits weighing about 20 g (at the level of the "Kuban Comet").

Plumcote 'Hummingbird' ('Mouse') - hardy, dwarf (the tree does not grow above 3 m), well cuttings, fruits of high quality. Plumcote 'Kuban' is a seedling from the free pollination of the 'Kuban Comet' with black apricot; its winter hardiness is high, the tree is weakly growing, early ripening (earlier than the 'Hummingbird'), it is well cut. Both varieties of winter hardiness may be suitable for the middle part of Russia. The tests of these plumes have not yet been completed.

Black Apricot

A hybrid of real cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) with apricot.

Varieties

Blooming cherry plum

Most varieties of cherry plum and Russian plum belong to the group of stunted trees, the height of which does not exceed 3.3 m, and only 'Flint', 'Globe', 'Angeleno' grow to 4.0-4.2 m. The smallest crown volume (4.5—14.6 m3) are of the varieties 'Columnar', 'Late Comet', 'Stranger', 'Eugenia', and the largest (25.6—31.9 m3) - 'Gek', 'Flint', 'Globe', which should be taken into account when selecting varieties for intensive plantings.

According to the branching power , varieties can be divided into several conditional groups:

varieties with weak branching power (up to 200 cm per 1 square meter of branch): 'Kuban Comet', 'Late Comet', 'Tent', 'Evgenia', 'Columnar';

varieties with an average branching capacity (200-400 cm per 1 square meter of branch): 'July Rose', 'Abundant', 'Globe', 'Gek', 'Pearl', 'Flint', 'Sarmatian', 'Gift to a Giant Garden', 'Watermelon';

varieties with high and very high branching power (400-800 and more cm per 1 square meter of branch): 'Traveler', 'Angeleno', 'Melon', 'Found', 'Purple', 'Stranger

Timeline

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