Pinscher is a group of dog breeds. Initially, Pinschers were bred as rat-catchers and guards, but now they are used both as service dogs and just as pets. The word "pinscher" is German, although, according to one version, it comes from the English word pinch and is due to the fact that the ears of this breed were usually cropped. Wikipedia
Height: Miniature Pinscher: 25 - 32 cm, Doberman:
History of the breed
Dobermans were created as a purposefully formed breed and were shaped by careful selection. The beginning of this work was laid by Karl Doberman, and after his death, work on the breed was continued by his followers.
Karl Dobermann himself was a tax collector and a German police officer, and the breed he created was originally formed as a dog for the police service. In addition to working on the formation of his own breed, Doberman was also the owner of a dog shelter, in the classroom with which he honed his skills in training dogs and formed a system for their training, which he later used to train police dogs.
Work on the Doberman breed was started by him in 1870. German Pinschers were chosen as the ancestors of the breed, which the creator of the breed took to work for their courageous and rather aggressive character. Subsequently, the blood of Rottweilers, Belgian and Thuringian shepherd dogs, as well as Weimar and other hounds  were added to them.
For the first time, as an independent breed, the dogs of Karl Dobermann were presented at an exhibition in 1897. A year later, this breed received its first official recognition.
The original name of the breed - the Thuringian Pinscher  - after the death of Dobermann in 1894 was replaced by the Doberman Pinscher, under this name they were presented at the exhibition. During the next revision of the standard in 1949, the word "pinscher" was removed from the name of the breed, and it began to be called simply "Doberman".
The first stud book of dogs of this breed was compiled at about the same time when the dogs were first presented at the exhibition, but later it turned out to be lost. Its compiler was Otto Koller, who worked on the breed together with Karl Dobermann and continued his work after the death of the creator of the breed .
In Russia, Doberman dogs first appeared in 1902, when they were brought specifically to work in the police .
In the first decade of the twentieth century, work to improve the breed continued. Then, to lighten the skeleton, the blood of Greyhounds was added to these dogs, and the blood of a number of hounds was added to them to improve their sense of smell .
In Stanley Koren's book The Intelligence of Dogs, the Doberman is included in the group of breeds with the best training abilities .
This breed was officially recognized by the German Kennel Club in 1900. The next country to recognize this breed was the United States of America, where it was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1908. Shortly thereafter, she was recognized by the Continental Kennel Club.
The International Cynological Federation FCI recognized the Doberman breed only in the middle of the twentieth century, in 1955
The Doberman is a large dog with a muscular but slender build, giving the impression of a collected, dynamic, active animal. In the judge's exhibition evaluation, the harmony of the animal's constitution and the clarity of the silhouette lines play an important role .
Dogs of this breed are characterized by pronounced sexual dimorphism - males are much larger than females and have an almost square body format with a pronounced back tilt, while females have a more stretched format, lighter and leaner build, and a back tilt is weakly pronounced .
The head gives the impression of being proportionate to the body and should not be too heavy or too light. When viewed from above, the head of the dogs of this breed has the shape of a wedge. The length of the forehead and nose are equal. The transition from the forehead to the muzzle is well defined, has a pronounced frontal furrow. Superciliary ridges are well developed. The muscles of the jaws and zygomatic bones are well defined, but should not be pronounced. The mouth is distinguished by a very wide opening, up to the possibility of seeing the molars from the side of the observer. Such a functional feature of the structure of the Doberman's mouth provides the possibility of a deep and strong grip with the teeth and high pressure of the jaws while holding the grip .
The nose has a well-formed lobe with large, noticeably open nostrils. The color of the nose and lips is in harmony with the color. The lips themselves are fleshy, dense, in front tightly adjacent to the jaws. In the corners of the mouth, they form an elastic fold, which makes it possible for the Dobermans to open the mouth wide .
The eyes are of medium size, slightly slanting or oval. Eyelids close-fitting, with a clearly defined contour. A slight drooping of the lower eyelid is allowed. The color of the eyes is in harmony with the color - the lighter the color of the coat, the lighter the pigmentation of the eye .
The neck is long, set high, looks harmonious in combination with the body and head, forming a smooth bend from the occiput to the withers. There may be a slight leathery dewlap on the neck (usually in males).
Withers protruding, strongly developed.
The back is short, straight with an inclination to the waist, well muscled. The croup is wide, continuing the line of inclination of the back, not having a lift. The chest is deep, well developed, with a pronounced sternum and relief of the ribs . The abdomen is tucked up, but the transition from the ribs to the abdomen does not form sharp angles.
The tail is set high, well muscled at the base. Both short docking for two or three tail vertebrae and the natural appearance of the tail are allowed. In the event that docking was not performed, the tail of dogs of this breed has a saber shape, set high, and should be devoid of knots and sharp bends .
The limbs are strong, with relief muscles and markedly pronounced joints. The shoulder girdle has a strongly developed relief musculature, the elbows fit snugly to the body. The forelimbs are set perpendicular to the ground, parallel to each other. The pasterns on them are strongly developed, stand with a slight slope. The hind limbs are slightly carried out from under the body, parallel to each other. The thighs and pelvis are well muscled. The stifle and hock joints of the hind limbs form pronounced angles, providing a good feed of the dog forward. The toes are short, strongly arched, and tight-knit. The pads are well developed, have a color corresponding to the color of the dog's coat .
The coat is short, medium hard, dense, close to the body. Visually, due to the specific structure of wool, it seems even shorter than it really is. The undercoat is practically absent.
The color of Dobermans is most often black or dark brown with bright and clearly defined tan marks of different shades of red. At the exhibition evaluation, preference is given to dogs whose tan marks are located symmetrically. Also rare blue and isabella colors are acceptable in the breed .
Dobermans are distinguished by an active, energetic character, prone to aggression. They have a pronounced guarding instinct, both territorial and aimed at protecting people . At the same time, in the family where this dog lives, Dobermans are friendly and not aggressive towards pets, including children. With proper socialization, these dogs are distinguished by devotion and obedience to all family members.
In relation to other types of animals, Dobermans are not aggressive and are suitable for keeping together with both cats and other pets. To representatives of their species, with whom they live in the same territory, these dogs are also not aggressive .
Aggression, which is often noted in the description of this breed, is aimed specifically at people, and at strangers.
In general, Dobermans tend to adapt very strongly to the owner and broadcast in their behavior the behavior and mood of the owners .
When conflicts arise within the family, Dobermans can be actively involved in this conflict, up to the readiness to aggressively defend the person who is the actual owner of the dog.
In training, Dobermans show intelligence and the ability to quickly master commands, both simple and complex. At the same time, due to the rapid assimilation of skills, it is important for the owner to avoid mistakes in the formation of the desired behavior, since an erroneous skill will be established as quickly as the desired one. During training, it is important to remain consistent in command execution requirements and actively provide positive reinforcement for correctly executed commands. Because of this, Dobermans are not recommended for beginner dog owners .
The work shows high interest and passion.
Maintenance and care
In terms of care, the Doberman is a rather undemanding breed. It is enough from time to time to comb out the wool with a fine brush and wipe it from dirt with a damp cloth. Seasonal molting is not characteristic of these dogs .
Walks for dogs of this breed should be long, containing high loads, both physical and intellectual . During long walks in cold weather, Dobermans need to be walked in special clothes, since these dogs do not have an undercoat and, if exposed to freezing temperatures for a long time, they freeze, which can lead to diseases .
Dobermans, when properly grown, are distinguished by good health and long-term high activity until old age. When making typical mistakes in growing, such as not having enough minerals in the diet, little or, on the contrary, excessive physical activity under the age of one year, joint problems arise. They can be expressed both in the development of traumatic dysplasia and in the occurrence of traumatic arthritis and arthrosis. Also, the development of arthritis and arthrosis in Dobermans can be the result of long walks in the winter without the use of specialized dog clothes or the result of placing the dog’s bed in the house in a draft or in a too cool place .
Hereditary diseases characteristic of this breed include dilated cardiomyopathy, von Willebrand disease, and a tendency to various types of allergic reactions .
Previously, congenital dysplasia was also common in the breed, but at the moment this factor is practically reduced to zero thanks to the mandatory tests for the presence of the dysplasia gene in both parents before mating. Dogs in which it was found were not allowed for breeding.
Dobermans were bred as a service dog breed, created from the very beginning to work in the police. The main tasks that were set before the dogs of this breed have always been a search service and protection.
In this capacity, Dobermans are used in law enforcement agencies of different countries to this day. Also, Dobermans, due to their high flair, are used in the work of search and rescue services .
In addition, Dobermans are suitable for some dog sports, and can also be kept as companion dogs (provided the owner has sufficient experience in raising dogs) .
In culture and art
Dobermans almost from the very beginning of their history became popular as literary heroes, later appearing on movie screens.
In particular, in the film industry of the late twentieth century, the film "Doberman" was released, where the main character received his nickname for a character similar to the character of dogs of this breed.
The dog mentioned in the famous poem by Sergei Yesenin “Give me a paw for good luck, Jim ...” was a Doberman breed and belonged to V. Kachalov, which gave the second name to the poem “Kachalov’s Dog”.
Dobermans not only became the heroes of various works of art, but also received several monuments that were erected to dogs of this breed.
In particular, a monument to Dobermans was erected in the hometown of this breed - Apolda (Germany). The author of this monument was the sculptor Kerstin Stekel.
Another Doberman monument is installed in the USA, on the island of Guam. The history of this monument is connected with the history of the US Marine Corps and one of the episodes of the fighting during the Second World War.
According to the Guinness Book of Records, a Doberman named Sauer was recognized as the best sniffer dog. It happened in 1925 in one of the German colonies, where Sauer was able to track down the criminal on the trail, the length of which was more than 150 kilometers .