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VTOL (Vertical Takeoff and Landing)

VTOL (Vertical Takeoff and Landing)

Aircraft takeoff and landing done vertically without need of any form of runway

Vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) refer to the ability of aircraft to be able to land and take-off in a vertical manner. A well-known example of VTOL aircraft is the helicopter.

History

The helicopter was one of the first successful forms of VTOL-capable aircraft, with Étienne Oehmichen of France and Raúl Pateras-Pescara de Castelluccio of Argentina being the first two to have successfully developed rotor-based helicopters that took off, hovered, and flew. Following this, several other VTOL aircraft that were developed later on use technology that is similar in principle with the helicopter, and these rotor-based aircraft were used by various countries during World War II. Some examples include Sikorsky R-4, used by the United States, and Focke-Wulf Fw 61, used by Germany.

This development sets the trend to follow for further VTOL aircraft advancements. VTOL innovations have been particularly noted by the military, which leads to advancements by aeronautical technology companies. Experimentation with alternative propulsion models of VTOL aircraft, manifested in the invention of the Harrier Jet around the late 1950s. Instead of being powered by rotors, the Harrier used jet engine as its propeller.

Types of VTOL aircraft
Rotor-based craft

Rotorcrafts were the earliest form of VTOL aircraft. Rotorcrafts are generally energy-efficient, requiring less fuel than any powered-lift aircrafts. This makes the vehicle ideal for practical applications where the vehicle would need to hover for longer periods of time. Nonetheless, not all rotor-based aircrafts are able to do a vertical take off and landing. The autogyro, for example, uses a conventional take off and landing (CTOL). On the other hand, some, like the gyrodyne, has STOVL capability allowing it to take off and land vertically from a short runway. One of the VTOL rotorcraft still in mass production today is the Bell/Boeing V-22.

Powered-lift aircrafts

These aircrafts range from those utilizing ducted fan, propeller, and turbojets to lift the vehicle to the air vertically. Though the three aircrafts require higher fuel consumption - with the turbojets requiring the most - powered-lift aircrafts are capable for longer-distance flights and are able to perform more complex manueveurs in the air. One of the powered-lift VTOL aircraft that is in mass production uses jet turbines, which is the McDonnell/British Aerospace Harrier.

Timeline

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Devin Coldewey
July 29, 2021
TechCrunch
Air taxis may still be pie in the sky, but there's more than one way to move the air travel industry forward. Craft Aerospace aims to do so with a totally new vertical-takeoff and landing aircraft that it believes could make city-to-city hops simpler, faster, cheaper, and greener. The aircraft -- which to be clear [...]
Wheels Up
April 9, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Wheels Up, the leading brand in private aviation, today announces an initiative with Bell Textron, a Textron Inc. (NYSE: TXT) company, to lead...
Ingrid Lunden
March 3, 2021
TechCrunch
In a year where mass transit on airplanes, trains and buses has had lower traveler numbers in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, one of the startups hoping to pioneer a totally new approach to getting individuals from A to B -- flying taxis -- has raised some significant funding. Volocopter, a startup out of [...]
Ingrid Lunden
March 3, 2021
TechCrunch
In a year where mass transit on airplanes, trains and buses has had lower traveler numbers in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, one of the startups hoping to pioneer a totally new approach to getting individuals from A to B -- flying taxis -- has raised some significant funding. Volocopter, a startup out of [...]
Reuters
January 13, 2021
The Hindu
The single-passenger Cadillac - technically, a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) drone - will be able to travel from urban rooftop to urban rooftop at speeds up to 55 miles per hour.
Reuters
January 12, 2021
@bsindia
DETROIT (Reuters) - General Motors Co on Tuesday presented a futuristic flying Cadillac - a self-driving vehicle which takes off and lands vertically and carries the passenger above the streets and through the air.
Cohen Coberly
January 12, 2021
TechSpot
GM claims its Ultium batteries will have the highest nickel and lowest cobalt content and will come in large-format pouch cells.
Darrell Etherington
January 22, 2020
TechCrunch
Boeing has signed a new agreement with Israel-based Tactical Robotics, an exploratory deal that will see the two companies work together jointly on "developing, producing and marketing" aircraft with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) capabilities based on Tactical Robotics' 'Fancraft' enclosed rotor technology. Already, the Urban Areonautics-owned Tactical Robotics has developed 'Cormorant,' an autonomous flying [...]
October 2, 2019
WebWire
Airbus Helicopters and EASA have signed a joint Memorandum of Cooperation aiming to bring together their respective experiences and know-how to bring the next generation of VTOL platforms to life, along with the necessary regulatory framework to support them. "I am very pleased to be joining efforts with EASA to build a common framework for the next generation of vertical lift solutions over the next decades," said Bruno Even, CEO of Airbus Helicopters. "Innovation that benefits customers...
Darrell Etherington
August 28, 2019
TechCrunch
SF-based Elroy Air hopes to transform bulk air cargo shipping with its 'Chapparal' vertical take-off and landing craft, the first version of which will be able to carry 250 lbs of cargo as far as 300 miles. The startup, which was founded in 2016 by experienced professionals with track records of working in UAS (uncrewed [...]

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