Soviet and Russian large-capacity off-road truck with an 8 × 8 / 4 wheel formula, produced at the Ural Automobile Plant in Miass (Russia), including for use in the Russian army as part of the unified Susha families (until 1998) and " Motovoz.
History of creation
In the mid-1960s, NAMI and the Ural Automobile Plant, commissioned by the Ministry of Defense, began developing a family of unified multi-purpose off-road vehicles . In 1965-1966, prototypes of the NAMI-058 flatbed vehicle (8 × 8, original cab, YaMZ-238N V8 diesel engine with a power of 320 & hp) and the NAMI-058S truck tractor (cab of the Ural-375D car), designed for work as part of the road train NAMI-058S-862 (12 × 12) with an active semi-trailer Ural-862 . Despite successful tests, the machines needed serious improvement and, as a result, did not go into mass production.
Regardless of the creation of a prototype NAMI-058, the designers of the Ural Automobile Plant were developing their own car . On the basis of a unified aggregate base of serially produced Ural-375 (6 × 6, 1961) and Ural-377 (6 × 4, 1965) in 1969, the first samples of 6 × 6 vehicles were manufactured in two layouts - cabover (Ural-379A) and half-bonnet (Ural-379B) . Both vehicles were equipped with an experimental water-cooled Ural-2E640 V8 diesel engine with a capacity of 200 hp. with. Ural-379B received the cabin of the serial Ural-377, cut in two longitudinal planes (approximately in the middle of the windshields) and extended in width by 300 mm. For the Ural-379A, an original fiberglass cabin was developed.
According to the test results, no significant differences were found in terms of dynamic characteristics and cross-country ability. However, the use of a cabover layout due to a more even distribution of the load along the axles increased the smoothness of the ride and handling, and improved the maintainability of the car. The decisive factor in favor of the cabover layout was the customer's requirement for the presence of a floating modification in the unified family. At that time, it was believed that it was almost impossible to create such a car in the bonnet version.
Subsequently, floating bonneted cars were created. In 1975-1976, NAMI, by sealing the body and equipping the car with a number of polyurethane foam floats, developed and tested the Ural-375P. Afloat, the machine was propelled by a propeller, had a carrying capacity of 4.5 tons and developed a maximum speed of 8 & km / h. Later, in 1979, within the framework of the Susha project, the Ural Automobile Plant created the Ural-43221A (6x6) amphibious vehicle with a payload capacity of 4 tons.
The technological complexity of manufacturing fiberglass cabins was the reason for the development of a metal cabin with sealed doors, which was installed on prototypes of the second Ural-379 series. In parallel, a prototype Ural-395 (8 × 8) was made, which received a metal cabin. The work was completed by 1972. The machine was equipped with an experimental V10 YaMZ-741 diesel engine with a capacity of 260 hp. with., which was developed for KamAZ. Afloat Ural-379 and Ural-395 were driven by the rotation of wheels with a developed tread.