Advanced Search


From the perspective of earth, (outer) space is a zone that occurs about 100 kilometers (60 miles) above the ground where there is no appreciable air to breathe or to scatter light.


Outer space, also known as space, is the expanse existing beyond Earth and other celestial bodies. Space is a hard vacuum containing various particles of low density, primarily consisting of plasma of hydrogen and helium. Other things existing in space are:

  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Neutrinos
  • Cosmic rays
  • Magnetic fields
  • Dust

The average temperature of space is extremely cold and unfit for human survival, and is a result of background radiation caused by the 'Big Bang.' Space at baseline sits at 2.7 kelvins, or −270.45 °C; −454.81 °F.

Neil Armstrong on the moon (1969)

Human exploration of space began in the 20th century, after the invention of high-altitude balloon flight. Later, crewed rocket flights were launched and the first successful crewed space mission took place in 1961. The mission was completed by a Soviet Union astronaut Yuri Gagarin. In 1969, Neil Armstrong was the first person to set foot on the moon, during NASA's Apollo 11 mission. Due to the high costs of human space travel, human space exploration has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon; however, uncrewed spacecraft have landed on all known planets in the solar system.

Space technologies

Various technologies and sub-industries exist in space or are being developed by a multitude of companies to further contribute to space exploration. Some of these technologies and sub-industries are:

  • Spacecraft propulsion
  • Launchers
  • Cislunar
  • Satelite control
  • Weather tracking
  • Connectivity
  • Satellite imagery
  • Space vehicles
Spacecraft propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is a common component of all space-related travel, not just for human crews but also for satellites, rovers, and crewless spacecraft. There are two types of propulsion: spacecraft propulsion, which broadly refers to any acceleration of satellites and spacecraft; and in-space propulsion, which relates exclusively to propulsion systems that can operate within a hard vacuum and should not be confused with space launch or atmospheric entry.


Launchers, also known as launch vehicles or carrier rockets, are rocket-propelled vehicles used to carry payloads from the surface of Earth into orbit or outer space. A launcher is actually a full launch system comprised of various parts, including:

  • Launch vehicles
  • Launch pads
  • Vehicle assembly and fueling
  • Range safety
  • Other infrastructure components


Cislunar travel and exploration references travel or explorations occurring in the spaces between Earth and the moon. Cislunar travel is becoming more popularized by the private and public sectors due to the rising demand to commercialize space travel. The commercialization of space travel is aimed at making low-orbit space a premier destination for vacationing, cargo transport, and expansion in space-capable technologies.

Satellite control and data ingestion

Satellite control and data ingestion is a function of AWS Ground Control, an arm of Amazon that allows satellite communication, control, and collection of satellite data from a fully staffed station on Earth. The service is provided to allow companies to scale operations without having to manually manage systems themselves.

Weather tracking

Weather tracking is the action of predicting weather based on various technologies like satellites, radiosondes, weather radar, and other ground-based technology. Satellite weather tracking is based in space and provides weather reporting services, like the National Weather Service (NWS), with a global picture of potential incoming weather patterns. The ground-based methods provide NWS with more localized weather information.

Space communications

Space communications is made up of six different parts:

  • Ground networks
  • Space relays
  • Bandwidth
  • Data rates
  • Latency
  • Interference

At the core of space communications, a transmitter and receiver are needed to successfully communicate. Transmitters encode messages onto electromagnetic waves through modulation. The electromagnetic waves travel through space to the receiver where the message is then demodulated to decode the sender's message.

The concept is similar to wireless internet, in which the router will send information from the internet and transmit the message on the user's computer, providing the data the user was looking for. Space communications are performed on a maximized scale, in comparison.

Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery, also known as spaceborne photography, Earth observation, and satellite photography, is images of Earth collected by imaging satellites. Imaging satellites are often operated by government entities and private businesses around the world for the purpose of resale to governments or other private businesses, like Apple Maps or Google Maps.

Space vehicles (habitats)

Space vehicles with habitats provide living spaces for manned space crafts. Habitats include sleeping quarters, bathrooms, and other living comforts. Space habitats are also being built to have humans inhabit outer space. Space settlements would have more advanced living spaces than space stations or spacecraft as they are intended for more permanent living scenarios.

Space vehicles (transportation)

Space vehicles for transportation can include ships transporting humans or payloads. Payloads are often times shipped into space in unmanned spacecraft. Other space vehicles transport humans to various locations like the international space station, or to the moon for lunar exploration.


Miscellaneous space companies




Further reading


Documentaries, videos and podcasts





Madhurima Nandy
October 1, 2021
Amazon has increased its storage capacity by 40% with more than 60 fulfillment centers in 15 states, offering 43 million cubic feet to its sellers
Annie Saunders
September 8, 2021
Space can and should be about much more than giving the 1% another Instagrammable moment and increasing the wealth of the billionaires who provide the service.
Zee News
August 25, 2021
Zee News
Aadhar card, which is issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), has become one of the most important documents for Indian citizens.
Trending Desk
August 19, 2021
French astronaut Thomas Pesquet, who is presently aboard the ISS, recently showed a few beautiful images of Italy's floating city Venice.
August 13, 2021
Bollyinside - US Local News & Breaking News Stories
A rover is a vehicle that drives through extraterrestrial terrain. Stroupe drives Curiosity a rover on mars that takes images and collects different


Golden logo
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0; additional terms apply. By using this site, you agree to our Terms & Conditions.