Sir Gregory Paul Winter is a British biochemist known for the development of the first humanized antibodies, directed evolution of antibodies and phage display technology for the development of human therapeutic antibodies.
George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2018 for the phage display of peptides and antibodies. That year Frances H. Arnold also share with them the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the directed evolution of enzymes.
Winters engineering of so-called humanized antibodies involved the replacement of sections of mouse antibody that stimulated unwanted immune reactions with human antibody fragments. This allowed the development of drugs such as trastuzumab (Herceptin) for the treatment of breast cancer and bevacizumab (Avastin) approved for certain types of cancer and for age-related macular degeneration.
Winter refined phage display technology, originally developed by George P. Smith, so that fully human antibody proteins could be generated by fusion phages produced in the laboratory.
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- Frances H. ArnoldNobel Prize winning American scientist and engineer known for pioneering directed evolution methods for the generation of useful proteins.
- George P. Smith (American biochemist)George P. Smith is an American biochemist known for his development of phage display and for winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2018.
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry