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Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca

Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca

Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca (RVR) is a machine-building plant in Latvia, formerly manufacturing and upgrading rail vehicles. It has been insolvent and non-operational since 2017.

History
Russian empire

The plant was founded in 1895 by the German-Baltic entrepreneur, the Owner of Russo-Balt Oskar Freiwirth as a joint-stock company "Phoenix". Creation of reserves of natural resources in Russia and the construction of railways in the 1890s.

In 1906, Russo-Balt and Phoenix were sold to the Prodvagon syndicate at a 20% discount. The specific weight composition includes about half of the total volume of cars and agricultural machinery produced.

In 1907, "Phoenix" acquired the Riga Rolling Plant and launched the production of sheet and long products. In addition to wagons, he began to produce self-dumping harvesters for agriculture.

By 1913, control over the Russian-Baltic Plant passed to the Russian-Asian Bank, and the Riga Commercial Bank became the main shareholder of the phoenix. Due to the production of industrial orders at the Riga wagon factories, it increased by 1.5-2.9 times.

During the offensive of the detachments in 1915, during the evacuation of the Riga factories and enterprises, Russo-Balt was evacuated to Tver, where, after merging with a plant of a similar profile, an educational military complex in Russia. "Fenikss" Subject to evacuation in Rybinsk, however, reached the territory of these two countries exporters from the United States as a depository in one of the ports of banks. the discovery of the restoration of the plant in Rybinsk was destroyed, part of the removed equipment was used at the printing plant.

During the period from 1895 to 1915, about 28 thousand freight and passenger cars were manufactured. The plant also produced railway platforms, agricultural machines. The plant was one of the largest wagon manufacturers in the Russian Empire.

Latvia in 1918-1940

The car building equipment left in Riga made it possible to resume production. Fenikss, owned by German capital, then produced a small number of passenger, freight and refrigerated wagons. And in 1936, after the Great Depression, it was liquidated and became the property of Vairogs JSC, acquiring the name of the latter. A license was obtained from the Ford Motor Company to assemble cars from Ford parts. The Latvian truck Ford Vairogs of 1938 has remained in the history of the world automotive industry.

The plant became the largest car manufacturer in the Baltics: in total, not counting orders from the military department, in the period from 1937 to 1940, the plant assembled 332 cars and more than 1,000 Ford trucks, and also manufactured 200 buses. For the period 1930-1940. wagon building was put in order.

In Soviet Union

During Soviet times, the plant was one of the largest manufacturers of electric trains and diesel trains, as well as tram cars.

Starting from 1949, RVZ began serial production of MTV-82 tram cars, which until 1948 were built in Tushino near Moscow; their production continued until 1961.

In 1960, the future inventor of the trolleybus train (a system of many units) Vladimir Veklich had an undergraduate practice at the plant. He worked in the department designing devices for controlling the engines of electric trains that operate on a system of many units, which became the topic of his thesis. After defending his diploma, despite the petition of the plant, he was assigned to Kiev, where on June 12, 1966 he launched the world's first trolleybus train. Vladimir Veklich always believed that work on his invention began with the experience he gained at the factory. In 1973, his invention returned to Riga: the city became the third in the USSR in terms of the number of used trolleybus trains by Vladimir Veklich, their maximum number was operated in 1984 - 87 units.

The plant at various times produced RVZ-6 trams, ER1, ER2, ER7, ER9 electric trains and other traditional layouts, as well as ER22 (for the USSR), ER25 (for Bulgaria), ER31 (for Bulgaria and Yugoslavia / Serbia) with three doors along sides of wagons.

In addition, in 1973 and 1988, the plant manufactured two trains of the only Soviet high-speed electric train ER200.

From 1964 to 1974, the plant also produced refrigerators "Sarma", "Vizma" and "Liga", which were intended for the office space of passenger trains, but became comfortable in everyday life. The production volume reached 60,000 refrigerators per year. Other consumer products were produced: children's furniture, sledges, ironing boards, shredders.

In the last years of its activity, the plant produced electric trains (ER2T, ER2TM and ER9TM), DR1B diesel train, AR2 railcars, RVR-2002 city trams, and also repaired railway equipment.

For almost fifty years, RVZ was the only manufacturer of suburban electric and diesel trains in the USSR and the largest in Europe, producing up to 600 cars a year. In total, during this time, 20,347 electric train cars, 1934 diesel cars and 7744 tram cars were produced. At the peak of production, up to 6 thousand people worked at the RVZ.

Attempt to save the plant and bankruptcy

Since 1991, production volumes have been steadily declining.

The last electric train produced by RVZ was released in 1993 [source not specified 299 days]; the last electric train manufactured by RVZ for Russia and released in 1993, as of 2016, was in operation and was assigned to the depot of the Dyoma-Kuibyshevskaya station. in the Russian Federation, own production of electric trains was established at the Torzhok and Demikhovsky plants.

Production of the ER9 series ended in 1996.

In 1998, the plant was declared insolvent, but did not stop working for a day, although production volumes decreased many times. The number of employees decreased from 2 thousand people in 1997-1998 to just over 120 people in 2001. The Latvian Privatization Agency allocated 1 million lats for settlements with employees.

The plant was put up for privatization in parts, for which its territory was divided into two parts. The southern one, adjacent to the central Brivibas street (about 10 hectares, office buildings and the Palace of Culture), passed to the Elkor trading company. 20 ha of the northern territory was acquired by the company Severstaļlat, which in 2001 registered a private joint-stock company JSC Rigas vagonbūves rupnīca (RVR), whose shareholders were the Felix holding (75%) and the metalworking company Vairogs R (25%), which invested 22,250 lats.

Export

Until 2001, RVZ products were supplied to Ukraine and until 2003 to Georgia. After 2003, the only ready-made electric train built at the RVZ was the Ep-563 narrow-gauge electric train, built in 2014 for the New Athos Cave Railway.

In 2015, the development of a new line of RVZ-8 trams with a modular design, from 1 to 7 sections in length, including two-cabin versions for shuttle traffic, began. In addition, a new low-floor trolley with double suspension (pneumatic cylinders and elastic elements) has been developed. The presentation of the project took place at the Modulor 2015 Design Biennale. Despite the high degree of project development and the completed selection of purchased elements of the main systems, RVZ-8 was never implemented.

Modernization of trams and trains

The revival of the plant after privatization began with a project to modernize 170 Riga trams, the service life of which was extended by 12 years. Inspired by this experience, the Riga designers developed their own project of a modern low-floor tram in cooperation with Belarus, which was tested and was supposed to receive EU certification. RVZ in this project provided bodywork, assembly and painting, purchasing windows, control systems, engines. Belkommunmash developed a tram project for Minsk and offered to adapt it for the European market, expanding its sales market and at the same time providing RVZ with access to the CIS market. At RVZ there was a program for the production of ordinary trams for the CIS, for which bogies were designed, the price of which is about 40% of the price of the final product. However, the Riga City Council did not support the local manufacturer: the Czech Skoda won the tender for the supply.

Suburban traffic in the Riga railway junction grew in the early 2000s: in 2004, the suburban carrier JSC "Pasažieru vilciens" ("Passenger Train") transported 23.5 million passengers, in 2005 - 25.5 million, in 2006 - m - 27 million. The movement was provided by Soviet trains, the service life of which had expired or was expiring. At the suggestion of the Minister of Transport Ainars Slesers, the modernization of trains was started at the RVZ with the involvement of funds from the European Regional Development Fund ERAF.

In 2003, 51 electric trains were overhauled, for 3.1 million lats from the state budget of Latvia.

In the first planning period after Latvia's accession to the EU (2004–2006), funding from the ERAF was allocated in the amount of 10,769,560 lats, the total amount of the order with the involvement of budgetary funds amounted to 17,024,734 lats (about 20 million euros).

Competition for the purchase of new trains

In 2006, 19 million euros were reserved in the "EU Equalization Fund" for the purchase of new diesel trains, and for the planning period 2007-2013. 112.4 million euros were planned for the purchase of new electric trains for the modernization of the Riga suburban railway service. It was logical to assume that these funds would be disbursed within the country, which has its own car building plant. However, this did not happen.

In 2017, by the decision of the Riga District Court, the bankruptcy proceedings of the plant were initiated.

List of RVZ models
  • 01 (62-01) - 3-car DC electrical section of the CP series
  • 02 (62-02) - motor car of the electrical section of the CP series (mod. 62-01)
  • 03 (62-03) - trailer car of the electrical section of the CP series (mod. 62-01)
  • 04 (62-04) - trailer car with a luggage compartment of the electrical section of the SR series (mod. 62-01)
  • 05 (62-05) - 3-car DC electrical section of the СР3 series
  • 06 (62-06) - motor car of the electrical section of the СР3 series (mod. 62-05)
  • 07 (62-07) - trailer car of the electrical section of the СР3 series (mod. 62-05)
  • 08 (62-08) — 3-car DC electric section of CH series
  • 09 (62-09) - motor car of the electric section of the CH series (mod. 62-08)
  • 10 (62-10) - trailer car of the electric section of the CH series (mod. 62-08)
  • 11 (62-11) - 10-car DC electric train series ER1
  • 12 (62-12) - motor car of the electric train of the ER1 series (mod. 62-11)
  • 13 (62-13) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER1 series (mod. 62-11)
  • 14 (62-14) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER1 series (mod. 62-11)
  • 17 (71-17) - tram car RVZ-6M2
  • 21 (62-21) — ER6 10-car DC electric train
  • 22 (62-22) - motor car of the electric train of the ER6 series (mod. 62-21)
  • 23 (62-23) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER6 series (mod. 62-21)
  • 24 (62-24) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER6 series (mod. 62-21)
  • 31 (62-31) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER7 series
  • 32 (62-32) - motor car of the electric train of the ER7 series (mod. 62-31)
  • 33 (62-33) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER7 series (mod. 62-31)
  • 34 (62-34) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER7 series (mod. 62-31)
  • 35 (62-35) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9 series
  • 36 (62-36) - motor car of the electric train of the ER9 series (mod. 62-35)
  • 37 (62-37) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER9 series (mod. 62-35)
  • 38 (62-38) - intermediate trailer car of the electric train of the ER9 series (mod. 62-35)
  • 51 (62-51) - 8-car DC electric train of the ER5 series (project)
  • 61 (62-61) - 10-car DC electric train of the ER2 series
  • 62 (62-62) - motor car of the electric train of the ER2 series (mod. 62-61)
  • 63 (62-63) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER2 series (mod. 62-61)
  • 64 (62-64) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER2 series (mod. 62-61)
  • 71 (62-71) - 4-car DC electric section of the ER10 series
  • 72 (62-72) - the head motor car of the electric section of the ER10 series (mod. 62-71)
  • 73 (62-73) - intermediate trailer car of the electrical section of the ER10 series (mod. 62-71)
  • 74 (62-74) - bogie of the motor car of the electric section of the ER10 series (mod. 62-71)
  • 75 (62-75) - 8-car AC electric train of the ER11 series
  • 76 (62-76) - the head motor car of the electric train of the ER11 series (mod. 62-75)
  • 77 (62-77) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER11 series (mod. 62-75)
  • 78 (62-78) - additional intermediate trailer car of the electric train of the ER11 series (mod. 62-75) (project)
  • 91 (62-91) - 4-car DC electric section of the ER20 series (project)
  • 101 (62-101) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9P series
  • 102 (62-102) - motor car of the electric train of the ER9P series (mod. 62-101)
  • 103 (62-103) - the head trailer car of the electric train series ER9P] (mod. 62-101)
  • 104 (62-104) - intermediate trailer car of the electric train of the ER9P series (mod. 62-101)
  • 105 (62-105) - 8-car DC electric train series ER22
  • 106 (62-106) - the head motor car of the electric train of the ER22 series (mod. 62-105)
  • 107 (62-107) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER22 series (mod. 62-105)
  • 110 (62-110) — 14-car high-speed direct current electric train of the ER200 series (No. 01)
  • 111 (62-111) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER200 series (mod. 62-110)
  • 112 (62-112) - a motor car with a current collector of an electric train of the ER200 series (mod. 62-110)
  • 114 (62-114) - a motor car without a current collector of an electric train of the ER200 series (mod. 62-110)
  • 110 (62-116) - motor electric car series ER23
  • 116 (62-116) - bogie of the motor car of the electric train of the ER22 series (mod. 62-105)
  • 209 (62-209) - 4-car AC electric train series 32 (ER25) (1435 mm gauge, for Bulgaria)
  • 213 (62-213) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9A series
  • 214 (62-214) - motor car of the electric train of the ER9A series (mod. 62-213)
  • 215 (62-215) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ER9A series (mod. 62-213)
  • 216 (62-216) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ER9A series (mod. 62-213)
  • 217 (71-217) - tram car RVZ-7
  • 219 (62-219) - 8-car DC electric train of the ER22M series
  • 220 (62-220) - the head motor car of the electric train of the ER22M series (mod. 62-219)
  • 221 (62-221) - intermediate trailer car of the electric train of the ER22M series (mod. 62-219)
  • 222 (62-222) - unified bogie TUR-02 for motor cars of electric trains
  • 223 (62-223) - unified bogie TUR-03 for motor cars of electric trains
  • 224 (62-224) - unified bogie TUR-01 for motor cars of electric trains
  • 225 (62-225) — 12-car DC electric train series ER30 (project)
  • 229 (62-229) - 12-car AC electric train of the ER29 series
  • 233 (62-233) - 10-car DC electric train of the ER24 series (produced at DMZ as ED2T)
  • 234 (62-234) - motor car of the electric train of the ED2T series (mod. 62-233)
  • 235 (62-235) - the head trailer car of the electric train of the ED2T series (mod. 62-233)
  • 236 (62-236) - an intermediate trailer car of an electric train of the ED2T series (mod. 62-233)
  • 239 (62-239) - 4-car AC electric train of the ER31 series (1435 mm gauge, for Bulgaria (series 33/233) and Yugoslavia (series 412/216))
  • 247 (62-247) — 8-car DC electric train series ER22V
  • 248 (62-248) - the head motor car of the electric train of the ER22V series (mod. 62-247)
  • 249 (62-249) - intermediate trailer car of the electric train of the ER22V series (mod. 62-247)
  • 251 (62-251) — ER12 series 10-car DC electric train
  • 255 (62-255) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9M series
  • 259 (62-259) - 10-car DC electric train of the ER2R series
  • 263 (62-263) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9E series
  • 267 (71-267) - tram car RVZ-7
  • 275 (62-275) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9ET series
  • 277 (71-277) - articulated tram car TR-1
  • 281 (71-281) - articulated tram car TR-2
  • 285 (62-285) — 14-car high-speed DC electric train of the ER200 series (No. 02)
  • 289 (62-289) - 10-car AC electric train of the ER9T series
  • 297 (62-297) - 10-car DC electric train of the ER2T series
  • 2011 (62-2011) — ER9TM series 10-car AC electric train
  • 2012 (62-2012) — motor car of the ER9TM electric train (mod. 62-2011)
  • 2013 (62-2013) — head trailer car of electric train of ER9TM series (mod. 62-2011)
  • 2014 (62-2014) - intermediate trailer car of the ER9TM electric train (mod. 62-2011)
  • 319 (63-319) - 6-car diesel train of the DR1P series
  • 323 (63-323) - 6-car diesel train of the DR1A series
  • 341 (63-341) - 6-car diesel train of the DR1A series
  • 349 (63-349) - 6-car diesel train of the DR1A series
  • 368 (63-368) - trailer car with a control cabin for a diesel train of the DRB1 series
  • 369 (63-369) - diesel train series DR8 (project)
  • 550 (63-550) - trailer car with a control cabin for diesel trains of the DDB1 series
  • 555 (63-555) - 6-car diesel train of the DR1B series
  • 556 (63-556) - the head motor car of the diesel train of the DR1B series (mod. 63-555)
  • 557 (63-557) - an intermediate trailer car for a diesel train of the DR1B series (mod. 63-555)
  • 558 (63-558) - an intermediate trailer car of increased comfort of a diesel train of the DR1B series (mod. 63-555)

Timeline

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