Quantum radar

Quantum radar

Emerging technology using quantum entanglement for remote sensing. Quantum radar offers potential improvements compared to conventional radar systems such as improved sensitivity in noisy thermal environments.

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Quantum illumination utilizes quantum-mechanically entangled beams of light. Quantum entanglement is a feature of quantum mechanics where a correlation of quantum statesquantum states exists between a pair or group of particles even when separated by large distances.

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The low power non-invasive properties of quantum radar systems offers potential applications in medicine. Dr Stefano Pirandola, of the University’s Department of Computer ScienceComputer Science and the York Centre for Quantum Technologies stated:

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Research into quantum radar technology has been ongoing since 2002 by US defense company Lockheed Martin and US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa). In the United KingdomUnited Kingdom, a study by defense company Qinetiq is testing the feasibility of using quantum metrology in radar and lidar systems.

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China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) the largest defense company in ChinaChina claims it has developed a quantum radar system. No evidence has been provided to support this claim and it has been dismissed by experts in the field.

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Research into quantum radar technology has been ongoing since 2002 by US defense company Lockheed Martin and US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa). In the United Kingdom, a study by defense company QinetiqQinetiq is testing the feasibility of using quantum metrology in radar and lidar systems.

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A February 2015 paper described achieving quantum illumination after converting visible photons to microwave wavelengths (capable of use in a radar system). The method used an electro-optomechanical converter. toThis coupledevice withcan 2generate wavelengthmicrowave-optical rangesentanglement for the signal beam and convert microwaves into an optical beam for the detection of reflected photons.

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Applications
Military

The potential increase in sensitivity due to quantum radar could improve the performance of military radar systems. Providing higher definition images of targets allowing specific models of aircraft, missiles, and other targets to be identified. The higher sensitivity also results in a lower power signal used making it harder to detect by the target. Targets typically detect when they have been spotted by a radar system and deploy jamming systems to interrupt further tracking.

Medicine

The low power non-invasive properties of quantum radar systems offers potential applications in medicine. Dr Stefano Pirandola, of the University’s Department of Computer Science and the York Centre for Quantum Technologies stated:

Such a non-invasive property is particularly important for short-range biomedical applications. In the long-term, the scheme could be operated at short distances to detect the presence of defects in biological samples or human tissues in a completely non-invasive fashion, thanks to the use of a low number of quantum-correlated photons. Our method could be used to develop non-invasive NMR spectroscopy of fragile proteins and nucleic acids. In medicine, these techniques could potentially be applied to magnetic resonance imaging, with the aim of reducing the radiation dose absorbed by patients.

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Ned Allen

Chief Scientist at Lockheed Martin

Professor Jonathan Baugh

Professor at the University of Waterloo

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Timeline

August 2016

Chinese State media claim to have tested a radar system that uses quantum entanglement
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Timeline

February 27, 2015

Paper published achieving quantum illumination after converting visible photons to microwave wavelengths
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May 8, 2020

Paper published demonstrating quantum illumination after converting visible photons to microwave wavelengths.
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Research into quantum radar technology has been ongoing since 2002 by US defencedefense company Lockheed Martin and US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa). In the United Kingdom, a study by defencedefense company Qinetiq is testing the feasibility of using quantum metrology in radar and lidar systems.

...

China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) the largest defencedefense company in China claims it has developed a next generation quantum radar system. No evidence has been provided to support this claim and it has been dismissed by experts in the field.

...

Quantum illumination was first demonstrated experimentally in 2013 using visible wavelengths. Quantum entanglement information survived environmental interactions that typically cause quantum decoherancedecoherence.

...

In 2016 Chinese state media claimed a team at the Intelligent Perception Technology Laboratory of the 14th Institute in CETC tested a radar system that uses quantum entanglement. The system was able to detect a target at a range of 100km in a real-world environment.

Last year, China’s biggest defence electronics company, state-owned China Electronics Technology Group, announced it had developed a next-generation “quantum radar system” that, it claimed, can detect ballistic missiles and other objects flying “at high speed through space”. Two years previously, the group said it had tested a quantum radar to a range of 100km (60 miles).

Applications
...

In 2018 CETC announced it had developed a next-generation quantum radar system. Claiming it can detect ballistic missiles and other objects flying at high speed through space.

...

Experts in the field such as Jonathan Baugh, Seth Lloyd, and Ned Allen have dismissed these claims. Allen stated he believed CETC may have conducted a successful experiment using a quantum radar system. However, the quantum radar generator was mounted on a satellite in space, propagating the entangled photons through a vacuum, not in atmospheric conditions.

Timeline

February 2020

Paper published demonstrating quantum illumination after converting visible photons to microwave wavelengths.
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Article

Quantum radar is an emerging technology that utilizesaims to use quantum mechanical properties to improve traditional radar techniques. The technology utilizes a process based on quantum entanglement known as quantum illumination. Quantum radar has potential applications in radar systems for the military as well as ultra-low power biomedical imaging and security scanners.

...

Traditional radar determines the location and direction of an object by transmitting electromagneticradio waves or microwaves and measuring the returning waves reflected off the object. This approach can fail in high noise conditions where thermal radiation overpowers reflected signal photons.

Research into quantum radar technology has been ongoing since 2002 by US defence company Lockheed Martin and US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa). In the United Kingdom a study by defence company Qinetiq is testing the feasibility of using quantum metrology in radar and lidar systems.

China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) the largest defence company in China claims it has developed a next generation quantum radar system. No evidence has been provided to support this claim and it has been dismissed by experts in the field.

...

Although thereThere are claims that the concept of quantum illumination was first theorized in the early 2000s at Lockheed Martin. TheHowever, the first paper proposing quantum illumination was published in 2008 by Seth Lloyd and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

...

Quantum illumination utilizes quantum-mechanically entangled beams of light. Quantum entanglement is a feature of quantum mechanics where a correlation of quantum states exists between a pair or group of particles even when separated by large distances.

Quantum illumination utilizes a quantum-mechanically entangled beam ofEntangled lightphotons thatcan isbe split into 2 beams such that there is a strong this correlation of quantum properties exists between the 2 beams. One beam is used to probe (signal) a target whilst the other beam (idler) is measured by a detector. The signal photons reflect off the target and return to the detector. Although this process breaks the quantum coherence of the signal photons with the idler photons some residual correlation remains. This remaining correlation allows signal photons measured by the detector to be separated from background noise increasing the sensitivity of the system.

...

Implementing quantum illumination for radar systems poses many engineering challenges. These include:

  • producing large volumes of reliable entangled photons
  • building detectors with high enough sensitivity
  • operating the system at low temperatures to access exploitable quantum states.

Quantum illumination was first demonstrated experimentally in 2013 using visible wavelengths. Quantum entanglement information survived environmental interactions that typically cause quantum decoherance.

A February 2015 paper described achieving quantum illumination after converting visible photons to microwave wavelengths (capable of use in a radar system). The method used an electro-optomechanical converter to couple with 2 wavelength ranges.

...

QuantumThe illuminationfirst withquantum microwaveradar photonsprototype was first achieveddesigned by an international research team based at the international research team at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria in 2019 with the prototype quantum. radarThe systempaper published in May 2020. The paper demonstrated a proof of concept for quantum radar, illuminating a room-temperature object at a distance of 1m. The system outperformed a classical radar system in the same conditions.

Chinese Research

In 2016 Chinese state media claimed a team at the Intelligent Perception Technology Laboratory of the 14th Institute in CETC tested a radar system that uses quantum entanglement.

Last year, China’s biggest defence electronics company, state-owned China Electronics Technology Group, announced it had developed a next-generation “quantum radar system” that, it claimed, can detect ballistic missiles and other objects flying “at high speed through space”. Two years previously, the group said it had tested a quantum radar to a range of 100km (60 miles).

Applications

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Entanglement's Benefit Survives an Entanglement-Breaking Channel

Zheshen Zhang, Maria Tengner, Tian Zhong, Franco N. C. Wong, Jeffrey H. Shapiro

March 21, 2013

Timeline

May 8, 2020

Paper published outlining the proof of concept for a Quantum Radar prototype.

February 2020

Paper published demonstrating quantum illumination after converting visible photons to microwave wavelengths.
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Although there are claims that the concept of quantum illumination was theorized in the early 2000s at Lockheed MartinLockheed Martin. The first paper proposing quantum illumination was published in 2008 by Seth Lloyd and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Edits on 30 May, 2020
Arthur Smalley
Arthur Smalley edited on 30 May, 2020
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Quantum radar is an emerging technology that utilizes quantum mechanical properties to improve traditional radar techniques. It was first proposed by an international team of researchers in 2015. The technology utilizes a process based on quantum entanglement known as quantum illumination to improve the sensitivity of radar. Quantum radar has potential applications in radar systems for the military as well as ultra-low power biomedical imaging and security scanners.

Traditional radar determines the location and direction of an object by transmitting electromagnetic waves and measuring the returning waves reflected off the object. This approach can fail in high noise conditions where thermal radiation overpowers reflected signal photons.

...

Although there are claims that the concept of quantum illumination was theorized in the early 2000s at Lockheed Martin. The first paper proposing quantum illumination was published in 2008 by Seth Lloyd and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

AQuantum illumination utilizes a quantum-mechanically entangled beam of light canthat beis split such that there is a strong correlation of quantum properties between the 2 beams. Quantum illumination utilizes oneOne beam is used to probe (signal) a target whilst the other beam (idler) is measured by a detector. The signal photons reflect off the target and return to the detector. Although this process breaks the quantum coherence of the signal photons with the idler photons some residual correlationscorrelation remainremains. This remaining correlation allows signal photons measured by the detector to be separated from background noise increasing the sensitivity of the system.

...

Quantum illumination was first proposed in 2008 by Seth Lloyd and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

...

Quantum illumination was first demonstrated experimentally in 2013 using visible photons. However to develop a system for use as in radar requires the use of microwave photons.

Prototype

Implementing quantum illumination for radar systems poses many engineering challenges. These include:

  • producing large volumes of reliable entangled photons
  • building detectors with high enough sensitivity
  • operating the system at low temperatures to access exploitable quantum states.
Quantum radar prototype
...

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Prototype
Technology

Although quantumQuantum illumination was first demonstrated experimentally in 2013 using visible photons,. However to develop a system for use as a quantumin radar system requires the use of microwave photons.

Prototype
...

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Microwave Quantum Illumination

Shabir Barzanjeh, Saikat Guha, Christian Weedbrook, David Vitali, Jeffrey H. Shapiro, Stefano Pirandola

Journal

February 27, 2015

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Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

China Electronics Technology Group Corporation

Xiong Qunli

Beijing

Defense, Electronics, Telecommunications

Lockheed-Martin

Marillyn Hewson

Bethesda, Maryland

Aerospace, Defense, Advanced Technologies, Information Security

Qinetiq

Steve Wadey

Farnborough

Aerospace, Defense, R&D

Timeline

May 8, 2020

Paper published outlining the proof of concept for a Quantum Radar prototype.

August 18, 2019

Quantum Illumination using microwave photons demonstrated experimentally.

July 2013

Quantum Illumination demonstrated experimentally using visible photons.

September 2008

Quantum Illumination proposed by Seth Lloyd and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Arthur Smalley
Arthur Smalley edited on 18 May, 2020
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Article

A quantum-mechanically entangled beam of light can be split such that there is a strong correlation of quantum properties between the 2 beams. Quantum illumination utilizes one beam to probe (signal) a target whilst the other beam (idler) is measured by a detector. The signal photons reflect off the target and return to the detector. Even thoughAlthough this process breaks the quantum coherence of the signal photons with the idler photons some residual correlations remain. This remaining correlation allows signal photons measured by the detector to be separated from background noise increasing the sensitivity of the system.

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Arthur Smalley
Arthur Smalley edited on 15 May, 2020
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Further reading (+1 rows) (+5 cells) (+137 characters)
Topic thumbnail

Quantum radar

An emergingEmerging technology using quantum entanglement for remote sensing. Quantum radar offers potential improvements compared to conventional radar systems such as improved sensitivity in noisy thermal environments.

Article

Quantum radar is an emerging technology that utilizes quantum mechanical properties to improve traditional radar techniques. It was first proposed by an international team of researchers in 2015. The technology utilizes a process known as quantum illumination to improve the sensitivity of radar. Quantum radar has potential applications in radar systems for the military as well as ultra-low power biomedical imaging and security scanners.

Quantum illumination

A quantum-mechanically entangled beam of light can be split such that there is a strong correlation of quantum properties between the 2 beams. Quantum illumination utilizes one beam to probe (signal) a target whilst the other beam (idler) is measured by a detector. The signal photons reflect off the target and return to the detector. Even though this process breaks the quantum coherence of the signal photons with the idler photons some residual correlations remain. This remaining correlation allows signal photons measured by the detector to be separated from background noise increasing the sensitivity of the system.

Diagram showing the process of quantum illumination.

Quantum illumination was first proposed in 2008 by Seth Lloyd and colleagues at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Prototype

Although quantum illumination was first demonstrated experimentally in 2013 using visible photons, to develop a system for use as a quantum radar system requires the use of microwave photons.

...

Quantum illumination with microwave photons was first achieved by an international research team at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria in 2019 with the prototype quantum radar system published in May 2020. The paper demonstrated a proof of concept for quantum radar, illuminating a room-temperature object at a distance of 1m. The system outperformed a classical radar system in the same conditions.

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Professor Seth Lloyd

Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Professor Stefano Pirandola

Professor at the University of York

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Enhanced sensitivity of photodetection via quantum illumination.

S. Lloyd

Web

September 12, 2008

Infobox
Related technology
Cluster: Quantum technology
Implementations
Defense Industry
Related organization
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Related technology
Quantum technology
Edits on 13 May, 2020
Arthur Smalley
Arthur Smalley edited on 13 May, 2020
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Description (+212 characters)
People (+2 rows) (+5 cells) (+240 characters)
Further reading (+3 rows) (+15 cells) (+538 characters)
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Topic thumbnail

Quantum radar

An emerging technology using quantum entanglement for remote sensing. Quantum radar offers potential improvements compared to conventional radar systems such as improved sensitivity in noisy thermal environments.

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Professor Johannes Fink

Head of the Fink Group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria)

Professor Shabir Barzanjeh

Assistant Professor at University of Calgary

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Microwave quantum illumination using a digital receiver

S. Barzanjeh, S. Pirandola, D. Vitali, and J. M. Fink

Web

May 8, 2020

Quantum radar has been demonstrated for the first time

Emerging Technology from the arXiv

Web

August 23, 2019

Scientists demonstrate quantum radar prototype

Science X staff

Web

May 8, 2020

Infobox
Is a
Technology
Related organization
Institute of Science and Technology Austria
Related technology
Quantum entanglement
Implementations
Radar
Categories
Related Topics
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