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Organ-on-a-chip

Organ-on-a-chip

An Organ-on-a-chip is a microfluidic cell culture device created with a microchip manufacturing methods. These devices are intended to mimic in vivo biological architecture of functional living organs and can be used in research and drug development.

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Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 31 Jan 2019 4:06 pm
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Edits on 25 Aug 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 25 Aug 2018 4:09 pm
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Organ-on-a-chip models are poised to offer solutions to these major problems through the replication of human biologyhuman biology and with the potential to be high-throughput in vitro drug screening platforms. The approach of the technology involves the growth of cells in distinct compartments within a microfluidics device that are networked to each other through embedded channels. Cell media ("blood") flows through such channels and is circulated to each compartment on the chip, enabling cross-talk between different tissue types. The rate of media flow is typically controlled by pneumatic pumps and advanced bioengineering approaches can enhance cellular maturation in order to induce a more physiologically relevant organ-like phenotype. As an example, native organ biology such as gut peristalsis or breathing of the lungs can be mimicked with vacuum controlled stretching and contracting of the chips.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 25 Aug 2018 4:05 pm
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The primary goal of organ-on-a-chip (aka tissue-on-a-chip) technology is to accurately mimic in vivo biology so that safer and more effective medicines can be discovered faster. Lack of drug safety is the major factor contributing to the >90% overall failure rate during the drug developmentdrug development process and the liver is the most problematic organ with regards to toxicity issues. This high drug attrition rate is primarily a result of the poor ability of animal studies to predict drug-induced liver injury (DILI), with 57% of human hepatoxicities being unobservable in rodents and 37% unobservable in non-rodents. Animal drug testing is slow and resource intensive, often requiring numerous separate rounds of drug scale-up to supply animal studies throughout the lead optimization phase. With an average of 2,700 rodents and 300 non-rodents being used for each single successful drug registration (and keeping in mind that 9 out of 10 potential registrations fail), the animal usage, cost, and inefficiencies in the drug development process are staggering. 

Edits on 5 Jun 2018
Golden AI"Corrections"
Golden AI edited on 5 Jun 2018 11:29 pm
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Further reading (+15/-15 characters)

Further reading

Author
Title
Link
Type

Hornberg JJ , et al.

Exploratory toxicology as an integrated part of drug discovery. Part I: Why and how. - PubMed - NCBI

Academic Paperpaper

Kinter LB and DeGeorge JJ

Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development. - PubMed - NCBI

Academic Paperpaper

Olson H , et al.

Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. - PubMed - NCBI

Academic Paperpaper

Edits on 1 Jun 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila edited on 1 Jun 2018 6:36 pm
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Alex Dean"Adding thumbnail, abstract, and updating the format on citations"
Alex Dean edited on 1 Jun 2018 6:33 pm
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Topic thumbnail

Organ-on-a-chip

An Organ-on-a-chip is a microfluidic cell culture device created with a microchip manufacturing methods. These devices are intended to mimic in vivo biological architecture of functional living organs and can be used in research and drug development.

Article

The primary goal of organ-on-a-chip (aka tissue-on-a-chip) technology is to accurately mimic in vivo biology so that safer and more effective medicines can be discovered faster. Lack of drug safety is the major factor contributing to the >90% overall failure rate during the drug development process and the liver is the most problematic organ with regards to toxicity issues (Hornberg et al 2014). This high drug attrition rate is primarily a result of the poor ability of animal studies to predict drug-induced liver injury (DILI), with 57% of human hepatoxicities being unobservable in rodents and 37% unobservable in non-rodents (Olson et al 2000). Animal drug testing is slow and resource intensive, often requiring numerous separate rounds of drug scale-up to supply animal studies throughout the lead optimization phase. With an average of 2,700 rodents and 300 non-rodents being used for each single successful drug registration (and keeping in mind that 9 out of 10 potential registrations fail), the animal usage, cost, and inefficiencies in the drug development process are staggering (Kinter et al 2016). 

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Edits on 1 Jun 2018
Golden AI"Merging standard tables"
Golden AI edited on 1 Jun 2018 3:27 am
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Academic papers (-9 cells) (-489 characters)
Further reading (+12 cells) (+531 characters)

Academic papers

Author
Title
Link

Hornberg JJ , et al.

Exploratory toxicology as an integrated part of drug discovery. Part I: Why and how. - PubMed - NCBI

Kinter LB and DeGeorge JJ

Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development. - PubMed - NCBI

Olson H , et al.

Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. - PubMed - NCBI

Further reading

Author
Title
Link
Type

Hornberg JJ , et al.

Exploratory toxicology as an integrated part of drug discovery. Part I: Why and how. - PubMed - NCBI

Academic Paper

Kinter LB and DeGeorge JJ

Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development. - PubMed - NCBI

Academic Paper

Olson H , et al.

Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. - PubMed - NCBI

Academic Paper

Edits on 29 May 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila edited on 29 May 2018 6:28 pm
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Edits on 28 May 2018
Andreas Baudy
Andreas Baudy edited on 28 May 2018 8:52 pm
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Article (+2029 characters)
Academic papers (+9 cells) (+489 characters)
Further reading (+3 cells) (+118 characters)
Documentaries, videos and podcasts (+3 cells) (+92 characters)
Companies (+9 cells) (+91 characters)
Topic thumbnail

Organ-on-a-chip

An Organ-on-a-chip is a microfluidic cell culture device created with a microchip manufacturing methods. These devices are intended to mimic in vivo biological architecture of functional living organs and can be used in research and drug development.

Article

The primary goal of organ-on-a-chip (aka tissue-on-a-chip) technology is to accurately mimic in vivo biology so that safer and more effective medicines can be discovered faster. Lack of drug safety is the major factor contributing to the >90% overall failure rate during the drug development process and the liver is the most problematic organ with regards to toxicity issues (Hornberg et al 2014). This high drug attrition rate is primarily a result of the poor ability of animal studies to predict drug-induced liver injury (DILI), with 57% of human hepatoxicities being unobservable in rodents and 37% unobservable in non-rodents (Olson et al 2000). Animal drug testing is slow and resource intensive, often requiring numerous separate rounds of drug scale-up to supply animal studies throughout the lead optimization phase. With an average of 2,700 rodents and 300 non-rodents being used for each single successful drug registration (and keeping in mind that 9 out of 10 potential registrations fail), the animal usage, cost, and inefficiencies in the drug development process are staggering (Kinter et al 2016).

...

Organ-on-a-chip models are poised to offer solutions to these major problems through the replication of human biology and with the potential to be high-throughput in vitro drug screening platforms. The approach of the technology involves the growth of cells in distinct compartments within a microfluidics device that are networked to each other through embedded channels. Cell media ("blood") flows through such channels and is circulated to each compartment on the chip, enabling cross-talk between different tissue types. The rate of media flow is typically controlled by pneumatic pumps and advanced bioengineering approaches can enhance cellular maturation in order to induce a more physiologically relevant organ-like phenotype. As an example, native organ biology such as gut peristalsis or breathing of the lungs can be mimicked with vacuum controlled stretching and contracting of the chips.

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Services

CN Bio

Emma Sceats

Hertfordshire, UK



Emulate

James Coon

Boston, MA



TissUse

Uwe Marx

Berlin, Germany



Academic papers

Author
Title
Link

Hornberg JJ , et al.

Exploratory toxicology as an integrated part of drug discovery. Part I: Why and how. - PubMed - NCBI

Kinter LB and DeGeorge JJ

Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development. - PubMed - NCBI

Olson H , et al.

Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. - PubMed - NCBI

Further reading

Author
Title
Link

Ingber DE

Developmentally inspired human 'organs on chips'. - PubMed - NCBI

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Human Organs-on-Chips

5 August 2017

Edits on 1 Jan 2017
Golden AI"Initial topic creation"
Golden AI created this topic on 1 Jan 2017 12:00 am
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 Organ-on-a-chip

An Organ-on-a-chip is a microfluidic cell culture device created with a microchip manufacturing methods. These devices are intended to mimic in vivo biological architecture of functional living organs and can be used in research and drug development.

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