The primary goal of organ-on-a-chip (aka tissue-on-a-chip) technology is to accurately mimic in vivo biology so that safer and more effective medicines can be discovered faster. Lack of drug safety is the major factor contributing to the >90% overall failure rate during the drug development process and the liver is the most problematic organ with regards to toxicity issues. This high drug attrition rate is primarily a result of the poor ability of animal studies to predict drug-induced liver injury (DILI), with 57% of human hepatoxicities being unobservable in rodents and 37% unobservable in non-rodents. Animal drug testing is slow and resource intensive, often requiring numerous separate rounds of drug scale-up to supply animal studies throughout the lead optimization phase. With an average of 2,700 rodents and 300 non-rodents being used for each single successful drug registration (and keeping in mind that 9 out of 10 potential registrations fail), the animal usage, cost, and inefficiencies in the drug development process are staggering.
Organ-on-a-chip models are poised to offer solutions to these major problems through the replication of human biology and with the potential to be high-throughput in vitro drug screening platforms. The approach of the technology involves the growth of cells in distinct compartments within a microfluidics device that are networked to each other through embedded channels. Cell media ("blood") flows through such channels and is circulated to each compartment on the chip, enabling cross-talk between different tissue types. The rate of media flow is typically controlled by pneumatic pumps and advanced bioengineering approaches can enhance cellular maturation in order to induce a more physiologically relevant organ-like phenotype. As an example, native organ biology such as gut peristalsis or breathing of the lungs can be mimicked with vacuum controlled stretching and contracting of the chips.
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Exploratory toxicology as an integrated part of drug discovery. Part I: Why and how. - PubMed - NCBI
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Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development. - PubMed - NCBI
Kinter LB and DeGeorge JJ
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- Cluster: Synthetic biologyA cluster of topics related to synthetic biology.
- Cluster: BiotechnologyA cluster of topics related to biotechnology.
- Cluster: Stem cell technologyTechnology used for isolating, generating, growing and controlling the differentiation of stem cells into specialized cells and the application of stem cell technology for medical and non-medical purposes such as producing meat through cellular agriculture.
- Artificial organ
- MicrofluidicsMicrofluidics is both the study of and manufacturing of systems where fluids move through tiny channels with dimensions on the microscale. Microfluidics is applied to diverse fields including environmental detection, medical diagnostics, 3D tissue culture and microelectronics.
- 3D cell culture3D cell culture techniques use engineering to provide 3D environments for cells to grow. Cells can be attached to or embedded in scaffolds engineered from biological or synthetic materials or grown in conditions that promote cells to self-organize into 3D structures.