Novartis products include oncology medicines, generic and biosimilar medicines and eye car devices. The Innovative Medicine segment of the company is divided into Novartis Oncology and Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Novartis Pharmaceuticals consists of global business franchises in ophthalmology, neuroscience, immunology and dermatology, respiratory, cardio-metabolic and established medicines.
Sandoz is a division of Novartis that manufactures, distributes and sells prescription medicines and pharmaceutical active substances that are not patent protected and is franchised into Retail generics, Anti-Infectives and Biopharmaceuticals.
Alcon is a division of Novartis in the eye car product field in eye care devices and vision care. Alcon’s surgical franchise includes technologies and devices for cataract, retinal, glaucoma and refractive surgery and intraocular lenses to treat cataracts and refractive errors. Alcon’s Vision Care franchise includes contact lenses and contact lens care products. Alcon’s surgical portfolio also includes equipment for performing cataract surgery.
Novartis, previously called Ciba-Geigy, was one of the few pharmaceutical companies involved in tyrosine kinase inhibitor research when it began a collaboration with oncologist Brian Druker which resulted in discovery of the kinase inhibitor drug Gleevec (also known as Glivec or imatinib). Gleevec was FDA approved in 2001 to treat patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Kinases perform phosphorylation, a mechanism that controls the activity of proteins in the cell. CML patients have a mutation causing their tyrosine kinase to be overactive, which signals cell to proliferate at a high rate, resulting in accumulation of immature white blood cells. Based on revenue, Gleevec was one of Novartis’s top ten pharmaceutical products in 2017.
Novartis Oncology drug Kisqali (ribociclib) in Phase III MONALEESA (Mammary Oncology Assessment of LEE011’s (Ribociclib’s) Efficacy and Safety) trials, was reported in December 2018 to demonstrate efficacy and tolerability in combination with endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer patients with visceral involvement. Kisqali (ribociclib) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), proteins that when over active can promote cancer cell division and cancer growth. The drug is an orally available small molecule that acts by blocking phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, which prevents cell-cycle progression. Kisqali is also in the NATALEE study, a Phase III clinical trial with endocrine therapy to treat early breast cancer.
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- KinaseProtein kinases are enzymes that transfer phosphate groups to proteins in a reaction that requires ATP as a phosphate donor and enzyme catalyst. Serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate proteins on serine or threonine residues and tyrosine kinases phosphorylate proteins on tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation regulates the activity of certain proteins.
- PhosphorylationThe process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide. Protein phosphorylation is the main molecular mechanism by which cells regulate protein function in response to extracellular stimuli.