Golden
Netherlands

Netherlands

Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe.

Despite government-encouraged emigration after World War II, which prompted some 500,000 persons to leave the country, the Netherlands is today one of the world's most densely populated countries. Although the population as a whole is "graying" rapidly, with a high percentage over age 65, Amsterdam has remained one of the liveliest centres of international youth culture. There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered. Prostitution, "soft-drug" (marijuana and hashish) use, and euthanasia are all legal but carefully regulated in the Netherlands, which was also the first country to legalize same-sex marriage.

History

The History of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized border zone of the Roman Empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman power collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the north and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, and the Franks in the south.

Middle ages

During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the Carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and then extended their rule to a large part of Western Europe. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands.



By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia; he created the Burgundian Netherlands which included modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of France. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against Protestantism, which polarized the peoples of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch revolt led to splitting the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic French and Dutch-speaking "Spanish Netherlands" (approximately corresponding to modern Belgium and Luxembourg), and a northern "United Provinces", which spoke Dutch and were predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.



Eighteenth Century

During the eighteenth century, the power, wealth and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbours weakened it. The UK seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, and renamed it "New York". There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795-1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810), and later simply a French imperial province. After the collapse of Napoleon in 1813-15, an expanded "United Kingdom of the Netherlands" was created with the House of Orange as monarchs, also ruling Belgium and Luxembourg. The King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became independent in 1839.



After an initially conservative period, following the introduction of the 1848 constitution; the country became a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Modern -day Luxembourg became officially independent from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another branch of the House of Nassau. The Netherlands was neutral during the First World War, but during the Second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany.



World War Two

The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed almost all of the country's Jewish population. When the Dutch resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944-45. In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but prior to this; the Dutch destroyed the oil wells for which Japan was desperate. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975.



Post-World War Two

The post-war years saw rapid economic recovery (helped by the American Marshall Plan), followed by the introduction of a welfare state during an era of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic alliance with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, and all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In recent decades, the Dutch economy has been closely linked to that of Germany, and is highly prosperous. The four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU member states.

Timeline

2015

Starbucks paid €25.7 million to the Netherlands in 2015, and an investigation into Ikea is underway.

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By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline
January 20, 2020
Mail Online
The European Space Agency (ESA) has opened is plant in the Netherlands specifically designed to extract oxygen from moondust.
Press Trust of India
January 20, 2020
@bsindia
More than 3,000 global leaders will assemble here this week as stakeholders for a cohesive and sustainable world
BS Web Team
January 19, 2020
@bsindia
India vs Netherlands hockey match will be telecast live on Star Sports 2 HD and Star Sports 2 with English Commentary. Check Indias second home leg match live score and match updates here
IANS
January 17, 2020
@bsindia
This will be Indias debut in the FIH Pro League after having missed the first edition
Reuters
January 17, 2020
@bsindia
KLM is a part of Air France KLM
January 16, 2020
WebWire
Visma has grown exponentially in the Dutch market with a number of acquisitions over the last few years, which include Visma Connect, Visma Raet, ProActive, Visma Idella, PinkWeb, HR2day, Dotweb, VerzuimSignaal, PlusPort and Visma Roxit. By acquiring Circle Software, Visma continues its advancement in the Netherlands, with now around €350 million in revenue and over 2 000 employees in this highly strategic region, strengthening its leadership in the European market. Circle Software has gr...
IANS
January 16, 2020
@bsindia
The team which will be led by Manpreet Singh and dragflick sensation Harmanpreet Singh as Vice-Captain
Reuters Editorial
January 15, 2020
U.S.
Trade relations between China and the Netherlands would be damaged if Dutch semiconductor equipment supplier ASML is not allowed to ship its newest machines to China, Beijing's ambassador to the Netherlands was quoted as saying on Wednesday.
James Badcock
January 4, 2020
The Telegraph
Police authorities in Spain believe that a crackdown on criminal biker gangs in northern Europe could be behind a crime wave that saw 24 murders in the Costa del Sol province of Malaga over the last year.
Jeff Masters
January 4, 2020
Scientific American Blog Network
Near-record Arctic melting, a bountiful but deadly monsoon and three highly destructive tropical cyclones highlight the earth's second warmest year on record
Jamie Johnson
December 26, 2019
The Telegraph
One of the UK's most wanted men has been arrested by Dutch police as he sat down to eat his Christmas dinner.
Virendra Singh Rawat
December 26, 2019
@bsindia
Read more about UP govt plans to host Global Investors' Summit in October-November 2020 on Business Standard. Investment roadshows to be held at USA, the UK, China, France etc in the run-up to the summit
Gabriel J.X. Dance
December 22, 2019
www.nytimes.com
Nearly four dozen nonprofits around the world are dedicated to removing photos and videos of child sexual abuse from the internet. It's a daunting task.
BBC News
December 20, 2019
BBC News
The top court upholds a ruling requiring 1990 levels to be cut by at least 25% by the end of 2020.
Senay Boztas in Amsterdam
December 12, 2019
the Guardian
Psychiatrist Melina Rakic says the backgrounds of people who go through the Dutch psychological rehabilitation programme are always complex. Photograph: Inforsa
December 9, 2019
WebWire
In the Netherlands H&M has teamed up with Fietskoeriers.nl which covers about 30 cities in the country. To keep CO2-emissions to a minimum, Fietskoeriers.nl picks up the parcels at H&M's warehouse with biogas vehicles and then deliver the parcels by bicycles from local hubs. The new service is a next-day delivery option and priced as our regular next-day delivery. We are happy to see an increasing interest for sustainability among our customers and hope they will love this new climate...
Jamie Fullerton
December 8, 2019
The Telegraph
A Uighur woman living in the Netherlands has gone public about helping to leak secret Chinese government documents regarding human rights abuses in China's Xinjiang province because of fears for her safety.
Vinay Umarji
December 2, 2019
@bsindia
Read more about Second day of IIT placements: International offers continue to pour in on Business Standard. Earlier on day one, Microsoft had emerged as top recruiter, making the highest international annual CTC of $164,000 or Rs 1.17 cr, followed by Uber at $143,000 or Rs 1.02 cr at IITs
December 1, 2019
Deccan Chronicle
Doctors have concerns about the long term effects of a high protein diet like Keto, Atkins and the likes.
AFP
November 30, 2019
@bsindia
Read more about Hague stabbing: Dutch police launches manhunt in knife attack injuring 3 on Business Standard. Images on social media showed shoppers running in panic away from the scene, on a nighttime retail street lit by Christmas fairy lights.
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