Golden
Netherlands

Netherlands

Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe.

Despite government-encouraged emigration after World War II, which prompted some 500,000 persons to leave the country, the Netherlands is today one of the world's most densely populated countries. Although the population as a whole is "graying" rapidly, with a high percentage over age 65, Amsterdam has remained one of the liveliest centres of international youth culture. There, perhaps more than anywhere else in the country, the Dutch tradition of social tolerance is readily encountered. Prostitution, "soft-drug" (marijuana and hashish) use, and euthanasia are all legal but carefully regulated in the Netherlands, which was also the first country to legalize same-sex marriage.

History

The History of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarized border zone of the Roman Empire. This came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman power collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the north and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, and the Franks in the south.

Middle ages

During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the Carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and then extended their rule to a large part of Western Europe. The region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Holland, Zeeland, Friesland, Guelders and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands.

By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia; he created the Burgundian Netherlands which included modern Belgium, Luxembourg, and a part of France. The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against Protestantism, which polarized the peoples of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch revolt led to splitting the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic French and Dutch-speaking "Spanish Netherlands" (approximately corresponding to modern Belgium and Luxembourg), and a northern "United Provinces", which spoke Dutch and were predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority. It became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade.

Eighteenth Century

During the eighteenth century, the power, wealth and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbours weakened it. The UK seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, and renamed it "New York". There was growing unrest and conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots. The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, and a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795-1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland (1806-1810), and later simply a French imperial province. After the collapse of Napoleon in 1813-15, an expanded "United Kingdom of the Netherlands" was created with the House of Orange as monarchs, also ruling Belgium and Luxembourg. The King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became independent in 1839.

After an initially conservative period, following the introduction of the 1848 constitution; the country became a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch. Modern -day Luxembourg became officially independent from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another branch of the House of Nassau. The Netherlands was neutral during the First World War, but during the Second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany.

World War Two

The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed almost all of the country's Jewish population. When the Dutch resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944-45. In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but prior to this; the Dutch destroyed the oil wells for which Japan was desperate. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975.

Post-World War Two

The post-war years saw rapid economic recovery (helped by the American Marshall Plan), followed by the introduction of a welfare state during an era of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic alliance with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, and all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In recent decades, the Dutch economy has been closely linked to that of Germany, and is highly prosperous. The four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU member states.

Timeline

2015

Starbucks paid €25.7 million to the Netherlands in 2015, and an investigation into Ikea is underway.

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn
+ Add new row

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date
+ Add new row

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link
+ Add new row

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services
+ Add new row

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
Smriti Mallapaty
April 3, 2020
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Hilde Verweij
April 3, 2020
IN
It's potato planting season, but many Dutch farmers are facing a mountain of a problem, with a million tons of potatoes left over from last season due to the coronavirus outbreak.
Rachel Sandler
April 2, 2020
Forbes
Dutch scientists detected coronavirus in a city's wastewater before cases were reported by testing.
Kumaran P
April 2, 2020
Bangalore Mirror
The study recommends BCG vaccination as a potential new tool in the fight against Covid-19.
Reuters Editorial
March 23, 2020
IN
Anheuser-Busch InBev , the world's largest brewer, starting from Wednesday will ship some 50,000 litres of disinfectant made with alcohol removed from its alcohol-free beers to European countries hit by the coronavirus.
March 18, 2020
Firstpost
Coronavirus Outbreak LIVE Updates: A woman from Pune, who had a travel history to France and Netherlands, tested positive for COVID-19. This takes the number of cases in Pune to 18 and in Maharashtra to 42 Watch LIVE News, Latest Updates, Live blog, Highlights and Live coverage online at firstpost.com.
By Michael Thomsen For Dailymail.com
March 17, 2020
Mail Online
Europeans appear to be developing an MDMA habit according to a new study that analyzed wastewater for drug metabolites and biomarkers, finding a sixfold increase.
Daniel Boffey in Brussels
March 15, 2020
the Guardian
Animation shows sustainable urban plan of Merwede with car-free area - video
Helen Sullivan
March 10, 2020
the Guardian
Coronavirus: 'We cannot let meetings become occasions of contagion', says Italy PM - video report
March 8, 2020
WebWire
The International Surrealism Now exhibition will open on April 24 to July 26 of 2020 at the Center of Arts and Spectacle (CAE) in the city of Figueira da Foz in Portugal, and in the ambit of celebrating its 10th anniversary, the 14th edition of the International Surrealism Now exhibition., , , , The exhibition is a project created by Santiago Ribeiro, Portuguese surrealist artist, and started in 2010 at the Bissaya Barreto Foundation of Coimbra. In these 10 years, has been touring various part...
March 3, 2020
news.google.com
The draw for the second edition of the tournament has been made in Amsterdam, with inaugural winners Portugal looking to defend their crown
Anthony Deutsch
March 2, 2020
U.S.
U.S. sportswear giant Nike said on Monday its European headquarters in the Netherlands would be closed until Wednesday after an employee was infected with the new coronavirus.
Anthony Deutsch
March 2, 2020
IN
U.S. sportswear giant Nike said on Monday its European headquarters in the Netherlands would be closed until Wednesday after an employee was infected with the new coronavirus.
Chris Ciaccia
February 27, 2020
Fox News
A photographer from the Netherlands has captured remarkable photographs of a squirrel smelling a yellow flower.
Sophie Bushwick
February 27, 2020
Scientific American
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
February 24, 2020
WebWire
Visma has grown steadily in the Dutch market over the last few years, and extends its presence further by adding Onguard's order-to-cash solutions as a strategic complement to its financial management, HR management, procurement, and Digital Society cloud solutions in the Netherlands. Onguard joins the family of well-known Dutch brands in the Visma group, including Visma Connect, Visma Raet, ProActive, Visma Idella, PinkWeb, HR2day, Dotweb, VerzuimSignaal, PlusPort, Circle Software, and Vi...
February 20, 2020
WebWire
From February 20 through August 14, 2020, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum presents the exhibition Countryside, The Future, organized in collaboration with architect Rem Koolhaas and Samir Bantal, director of AMO, the think tank of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture. To coincide with the opening of the exhibition, the book Countryside, A Report (Guggenheim Museum and Taschen, 2020) has been published. Countryside, The Future is organized by Troy Conrad Therrien, Curator of Arch...
February 17, 2020
Wolf Street
It's not only Chinese tourists, business travelers, and property buyers who're not showing up, but also travelers from all over the world who've gotten second thoughts about sitting on a plane....
By Joe Pinkstone For Mailonline
January 20, 2020
Mail Online
The European Space Agency (ESA) has opened is plant in the Netherlands specifically designed to extract oxygen from moondust.
Press Trust of India
January 20, 2020
@bsindia
More than 3,000 global leaders will assemble here this week as stakeholders for a cohesive and sustainable world
SHOW MORE

References