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Microbiome and gut health

Microbiome and gut health

The field of health as it relates to Gut microbiota - the microorganisms inside the human microbiome, including bacteria and archaea that live in the digestive tracts of humans.

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Edits on 4 Jan, 2022
Leeds Rising
Leeds Rising edited on 4 Jan, 2022
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Microbiome and gut health

HealthThe field of relatedhealth as it relates to Gut microbiota are- the microorganisms inside the human microbiome, including bacteria and archaea that live in the digestive tracts of vertebrates of humans.

Leeds Rising
Leeds Rising edited on 4 Jan, 2022
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Microbiome and gut health

A cluster of topics related to microbiome and gut health.

Health related to Gut microbiota are the microorganisms inside, including bacteria and archaea that live in the digestive tracts of vertebrates of humans.

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Gut Bacteria in Health and Disease

Edits on 18 Dec, 2021
bug hunting
bug hunting edited on 18 Dec, 2021
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Metagenomics sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS)..
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Ampicon sequencing with NGS.
Edits on 14 Dec, 2021
Leeds Rising
Leeds Rising edited on 14 Dec, 2021
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Leeds Rising
Leeds Rising edited on 14 Dec, 2021
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Cluster: Microbiome and gut health Microbiome and gut health

The field of health as it relates to Gut microbiota - the microorganisms inside the human microbiome, including bacteria and archaea that live in the digestive tracts of humans.

Edits on 19 Oct, 2021
Katrina-Kay Alaimo
Katrina-Kay Alaimo edited on 19 Oct, 2021
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Proteomic companies

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Companies in the probiotics industryProbiotic companies

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Companies in the prebiotics industryPrebiotic companies

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Companies in the pharmabiotics industryPharmabiotic companies

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Skincare
Therapeutics

Companies investigating the relationship between the microbiome and skincare

Companies investigating the relationship between the microbiome and therapeutics

Edits on 4 Oct, 2021
Katrina-Kay Alaimo
Katrina-Kay Alaimo edited on 4 Oct, 2021
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Bioinformatics companies researching the microbiome

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Edits on 1 Oct, 2021
Katrina-Kay Alaimo
Katrina-Kay Alaimo edited on 1 Oct, 2021
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Katrina-Kay Alaimo
Katrina-Kay Alaimo edited on 1 Oct, 2021
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Probiotics are a live microbe. Some probiotics are classified as medical foods. Kombucha is a popular probiotic drink.

Companies in the probiotics industry

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Prebiotics are classified as compounds in food that positively influence the composition of the gut microbiome.

Companies in the prebiotics industry

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APharmabiotics are a drug, not a food, that is mined from host–microbe–dietary interactions in the gut.

Companies in the pharmabiotics industry

Edits on 7 Sep, 2021
Amy Tomlinson Gayle
Amy Tomlinson Gayle edited on 7 Sep, 2021
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Several methods are used to analyseanalyze microbiota and identify and quantify the members of a microbial community. Analysis can be done at the DNA, RNA, protein, and metabolite level.

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There are several methods/ techniquesmethods/techniques for DNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of microbiota and individual microorganisms present in the human microbiome. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) applied to DNA in human feces samples is the predominant method, and there are several strategies for NGS of the microbiome.

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NGS platforms sequence millions of small DNA fragments in parallel. Bioinformatics uses sequence maps to figure out where the sequenced fragments fit. NGS can sequence entire genomes or target specific regions. Amplicon sequencing targets specific regions by PCR, which are then sequenced with NGS.

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  • 16s sequencing.: The highly conserved region of the genome that codes for 16S ribosomal RNA in bacteria and archaea is amplified by PCR and sequenced. Specific sequence differences correspond to a taxa at an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). OTUs correspond to organisms at the phyla and genera level and can be less precise at the species level.
  • 18s sequencing.: Used for eukaryotes, homologous to the 16S rRNA region used for bacterial and archaea.
  • Internal transcribed sequence (ITS)Internal transcribed sequence (ITS).: ITS sequences ITS1 and ITS2 are used for amplicon sequencing and identification of fungal DNA.
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  • Whole genome shotgun sequencing (wgs) also called metagenomic shotgun sequencing. All genes in all organisms within the sample are sequenced. Random primers are used to sequence regions of the genome in overlapping reads which are assembled by computers. Using WGS, taxa can be defined at the species level. WGS is more expensive than 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

In whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS), also called metagenomic shotgun sequencing, all genes in all organisms within the sample are sequenced. Random primers are used to sequence regions of the genome in overlapping reads that are assembled by computers. Using WGS, taxa can be defined at the species level. WGS is more expensive than 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

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  • meta-total RNA sequencing (MeTRS)meta-total RNA sequencing (MeTRS).: MeTRS requires a reverse transcription reaction step to convert it into cDNA for sequencing.
  • RNA-Seq with NGSRNA-Seq with NGS.: Conversion of mRNA to cDNA is followed by NGS.
  • SSSU rRNA-based RNA-seqSU rRNA-based RNA-seq.: The target is small subunit rRNA.
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The investigation of all proteins in one organism is termed proteomics, or metaproteomics when multiple organisms are analysed.

  • MALDI-TOF MALDI-TOF mass spectrometrymass spectrometry.: Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is a form of mass spectrometry that is used to generate a protein mass fingerprint (PMF) whichthat is compared to a database. Mass spectrometry is a technique that uses ionization to categorize chemical compounds based on their mass to charge ratio. Microbial applications usually use time of flight (TOF) analyzers to measure mass.
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Much of the products for animal and pet microbiome health are focused on diet change, antibiotics, and steroids whichthat are able to provide temporary assistance to the pets microbiome. Whereas the innovations into animal microbiome health are focused on supplements to restore the petspet's microbiome and supplements to combat digestive issues to restore an animalsanimal's microbiome balance. Other innovations are in the food given to petspet and animalsanimal whichfoods that have ingredients including oligosaccharides and glycopeptides.

Edits on 2 Sep, 2021
Aleksander Holm
Aleksander Holm edited on 2 Sep, 2021
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Aleksander Holm
Aleksander Holm edited on 1 Sep, 2021
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Much of the products for animal and pet microbiome health are focused on diet change, antibiotics, and steroids which are able to provide temporary assistance to the pets microbiome. Whereas the innovations into animal microbiome health are focused on supplements to restore the pets microbiome and supplements to combat digestive issues to restore an animals microbiome balance. Other innovations are in the food given to pets and animals which have ingredients including oligosaccharides and glycopeptides.

Edits on 20 May, 2020
Charlie Hilton
Charlie Hilton edited on 20 May, 2020
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Microbiome and gut health

The field of health as it relates to Gut microbiota - the microorganisms inside the human microbiome, including bacteria and archaea that live in the digestive tracts of humans.

Edits on 17 Feb, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Feb, 2020
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  • 16s sequencing of 16S rRNA. The highly conserved region of the genome that codes for 16S ribosomal RNA in bacteria and archaea is amplified by PCR and sequenced. Specific sequence differences correspond to a taxa at an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). OTUs correspond to organisms at the phyla and genera level and can be less precise at the species level.
  • 18s sequencing of 18S rRNA. . SimilarUsed for eukaryotes, homologous to the 16S rRNA region used for bacterial and archaea.
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Feb, 2020
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Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Feb, 2020
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NGS platforms sequence millions of small DNA fragments in parallel. Bioinformatics uses sequence maps to figure out where the sequenced fragments fit. NGS can sequence entire genomes or target specific regions. Amplicon sequencingAmplicon sequencing targets specific regions by PCR which are then sequenced with NGS.

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  • 16s sequencing of 16S rRNA. The highly conserved region of the genome that codes for 16S ribosomal RNA in bacteria and archaea is amplified by PCR and sequenced. Specific sequence differences correspond to a taxa at an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). OTUs correspond to organisms at the phyla and genera level and can be less precise at the species level.
Edits on 26 Nov, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 26 Nov, 2019
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Edits on 1 Nov, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 1 Nov, 2019
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  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is a form of mass spectrometry that is used to generate a protein mass fingerprint (PMF) which is compared to a database. Mass spectrometry is a technique that uses ionization to categorize chemical compounds based on their mass to charge ratio. Microbial applications usually use time of flight (TOF) analyzers to measure mass.
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Edits on 15 Sep, 2019
Julius John Villarisco
Julius John Villarisco approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 15 Sep, 2019
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  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. MatrixMatrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is a form of mass spectrometry that is used to generate a protein mass fingerprint (PMF) which is compared to a database. Mass spectrometry is a technique that uses ionization to categorize chemical compounds based on their mass to charge ratio. Microbial applications usually use time of flight (TOF) analyzers to measure mass.
Edits on 13 Sep, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 13 Sep, 2019
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