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James Bond (ornithologist)

James Bond (ornithologist)

American ornithologist and inspiration for the name of the fictional spy

Commander James Bond CMG RNVR is a character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. He is the protagonist of the James Bond series of novels, films, comics and video games. Fleming wrote twelve Bond novels and two short story collections. His final two books—The Man with the Golden Gun (1965) and Octopussy and The Living Daylights (1966)—were published posthumously.

The character is a Secret Service agent, code number 007, residing in London but active internationally. Bond was a composite character who was based on a number of commandos whom Fleming knew during his service in the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, to whom Fleming added his own style and a number of his own tastes. Bond's name may have been appropriated from the American ornithologist of the same name, although it is possible that Fleming took the name from a Welsh agent with whom he served, James C. Bond. Bond has a number of consistent character traits which run throughout the books, including an enjoyment of cars, a love of food, drink and love-making, and an average intake of sixty custom-made cigarettes a day.

Since Fleming's death in 1964, there have been other authorised writers of Bond material, including John Gardner, who wrote fourteen novels and two novelizations; Raymond Benson, who wrote six novels, three novelizations and three short stories; and Anthony Horowitz, who has written two novels and has a third to be published in 2022. There have also been other authors who wrote one book each: Kingsley Amis (under the pseudonym Robert Markham), Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver and William Boyd. Additionally, a series of novels based on Bond's youth—Young Bond—was written by Charlie Higson and later Stephen Cole.

As a spin-off from the original literary work, Casino Royale, a television adaptation was made, "Casino Royale", in which Bond was depicted as an American agent. A comic strip series also ran in the Daily Express newspaper. There have been twenty-seven Bond films; seven actors have played Bond in these films.

Timeline

January 4, 1900
James Bond was born in Philadelphia.

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