Let's try to describe the most reasonable and effective way of your initial training. The easiest way to get acquainted with the principles and methods of investing is to read. It is the study of an ode or two books on the basics of investing that we put the first point of self-preparation. A good option for a beginner is the books of A. Elder, E. Nyman, N. Taleb and other well-known authors. Tip: do not look for comprehensive information on the basics of investing in a book bought on sale, worth 32 rubles. 40 kop.
The book is a kind of foundation, the starting point of your education, after reading which you will be able to determine your next steps and directions for your research.
Then it makes sense to turn to the Internet, where you will find a huge amount of free information available on any topic that interests you. Some of this information will be helpful, some not so much. Something can be safely called sabotage (intentional or unconscious lies!).
But for a fragile beginner, it is quite difficult to sort out all the information on your own. Therefore, in order to receive “intermediate” guiding consultations, one can undergo full-time short-term training. BCS provides everyone with the opportunity to take a variety of training courses that are suitable for both beginners and those who already know something about the stock market.
Step two: try
Now let's talk about the second key aspect for any novice investor. How can you make sure that the process of your "immersion" in the world of investments best meets your internal psychological attitudes? You should also understand that this choice in this context can mean a radical change in lifestyle, habits, daily routine, etc.
Even if we assume that you have a very high risk threshold and a very large amount "for experiments", the general rule will be the same - you should start very carefully. Better to be a bit of a pessimist than an optimist.
In this situation, you are, in fact, at a crossroads where you need to make a fundamental choice: will you start your investment activity immediately with independent trading, or will you entrust the care of your finances to investment managers and consultants? In any case, the choice can be revised in the future: for example, by resorting to the services of a consultant and gradually gaining experience now, in the future you will gain confidence in your abilities, sufficient for independent decisions.
If you choose a completely independent path, be sure to "correct" for your inexperience, be doubly careful and prudent. To begin with, make sure that your actions will be performed with such financial instruments, which, in the worst case, threaten you with the loss of only free funds allocated for risk. No "shoulders", loans, pledges and other risky undertakings!
To work on the stock market, you need to open an account with a brokerage company, through which you will make transactions with securities.
We distribute funds
It is important to remember that the initial deposit for speculation in the stock market is a small part of free funds that you do not mind losing in the most negative development of events. In general, savings should be distributed carefully and wisely. In particular, it makes sense to have your own personal "reserve" fund for the money that you can use in a critical situation, without wasting time and additional financial costs. It can be, for example, a term deposit “on demand”.
Then invest half (or more) of your funds in reliable conservative funds. These can be bond funds, mixed funds (stocks and bonds), money market funds.
As you study the issue, funds can also be diversified (by risk levels). At the same time, do not forget about the basic principle - a cautious and thoughtful approach. And be patient. A lot of patience! Be prepared to spend a lot of time.
If you are lucky enough to meet a very qualified and experienced manager who is willing to be your "mentor", by all means consider this opportunity, even if such "increased" attention comes at a slightly higher cost. They will pay off in the future. Most importantly, in any way of interacting with consultants and advisers, do not forget to rely on common sense and remember that you are the main stakeholder, because it is you who will ultimately incur losses or make a profit.
Formation of an investment portfolio. What does a novice investor need to know?
Hundreds of companies from different sectors are traded on Russian stock exchanges, you can invest in gold, buy mutual funds, trade index futures. How not to get lost in the variety of financial instruments and earn money is one of the most important questions for novice investors. To avoid a number of mistakes, it is important to understand how to correctly form your own investment portfolio, how to create your own optimal set of tools in terms of the ratio of profitability and risk.
It is important to remember that when forming an investment portfolio, use only free money. If you enter the market with the latest savings, this will only increase the psychological pressure, and your fear of taking risks will, at best, reduce profits to zero. Therefore, invest the money, the absence of which will not affect your daily life and well-being in the future.
Any investment portfolio is a collection of stocks, bonds and other securities. And all of them should differ in the degree of risk. As a rule, the higher the yield of an instrument, the greater the risks associated with it. And vice versa.
The growth portfolio is formed from the shares of companies whose market value has historically increased. The capital value of this portfolio will increase due to the increase in the prices of instruments.
The income portfolio is focused on generating high current income. As a rule, stocks with a good dividend history and a moderate increase in market value, as well as bonds, are placed in such a portfolio. Especially this portfolio is that it allows you to receive income with a minimum degree of risk, that is, acceptable for a conservative investor.
A combined portfolio helps to avoid possible losses in the stock market, both from falling quotes and from low dividends. One part of the financial assets included in the portfolio brings an increase in capital value to the investor, and the other part - dividend or coupon income. Important! The loss of one part can be compensated by the increase of another.
According to the level of risk, there are also three main types of portfolio:
Aggressive portfolio - it includes stocks of fast-growing companies, futures, options. Investments in the portfolio are quite risky, but at the same time they can bring the highest income.
A conservative portfolio is the least risky. It consists mainly of shares of large, well-known companies, as well as bonds. The composition of the portfolio remains stable over a long period. This type of portfolio is aimed primarily at capital preservation.
A moderate portfolio combines the properties of aggressive and conservative portfolios. It includes both reliable securities purchased for a long period of time and risky stock instruments, the composition of which is periodically updated. The capital gain is average, and the degree of risk is moderate. This type of portfolio is the most popular among investors.
If you are a beginner and decide to start investing with a small amount, then opening an Individual Investment Account is the best option.