GitHub

GitHub

Web-based hosting service for software development projects using git.

Github is based around a system of version control called Git. Git is an open-source version control system that was started by Linus Trovalds—the same person who created Linux. Git is similar to other version control systems, such as Subversion, CVS, Mercurial, and Bazaar.

Version control systems keep revisions organized by storing modifications in a central repository, or "repo." This allows developers to collaborate by downloading a new version of the software, making changes, and uploading the newest revision. Developers can see these new changes, download them, and contribute to them. When multiple people collaborate on a project, it's hard to keep track of revisions—who changed what, when, and where those files are stored. GitHub keeps track of all the changes that have been pushed to the repo. No coding is necessary to use Github.

"The concept is based around change: what is the right thing to do, what is the wrong thing?" said Tom Preston-Werner, GitHub's co-founder. "The efficiency of large groups working together is very low in large enterprises. We want to change that."

Features

Git has three core features: forking, pull requests, and merging.

"Forking" is when developers create a new project based off another project that already exists. If a user finds a project on GitHub that they would like to contribute to, they can fork the repo, make the desired changes, and release the revised project as a new repo. If the original repository that was forked to create the new project is updated, those updates can be added to the current fork.This feature encourages the further development of programs and other projects.

A pull request is opened when a user is proposing changes and requesting that someone review and pull in their contribution. Pull requests show differences in the content from both branches, and the user can collaborate and ask for feedback from other users regarding the project.Once the pull request is complete, the changes can then be merged with the initial project.

Besides its public-facing, open-source repositories, GitHub also sells private repositories and on-premise instances of its software for enterprises. This is GitHub's money making feature. Companies pay to use GitHub primarily for its collaboration features. It has become a popular way for people to do all kinds of software work; in 2012 its number of users jumped to 2.8 million from 1.2 million. The number of repositories increased to 4.6 million from 1.7 million the prior year. Solutions for private repositories do not utilize GitHub's network effect, but they are able to use the collaboration features.

Company culture

GitHub has no managers among its 140 employees. "Everyone has management interests," said cofounder Preston-Werner. "People can work on things that are interesting to them. Companies should exist to optimize happiness, not money. Profits follow."

GitHub's popularity has also made it an important way for companies to recruit engineers, who can show their work or collaborate on the work of others, inside some of the public pull requests. Software engineers routinely include links to their GitHub projects on their resumés, and companies scout for job candidates on GitHub.

Microsoft acquisition

In June of 2018, Microsoft acquired GitHub. This is Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella's second big acquisition, following the $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn two years prior. GitHub was valued at $2 billion in 2015, and Microsoft payed $7.5 billion in stock for the company.

At the time of acquisition, executives from both companies insisted that GitHub would remain technologically neutral, welcoming developers to use any code or any cloud service, rather than a Microsoft-walled garden.

Timeline

March 16, 2020
GitHub buys JavaScript packaging vendor npm for an undisclosed amount.
March 12, 2020
GitHub launches new tools for teachers, including autograding

GitHub announces two new features for GitHub Classroom, its set of tools for helping computer science teachers assign and evaluate coding exercises.

November 13, 2019
GitHub launches GitHub Actions to the general public.

GitHub Actions is a system for automating tasks like building, testing, and deploying software. The beta was launched in 2018 and it is now available to everyone.

October 4, 2019
GitHub announces that Rachel Potvin will join as its new vice president of data.

September 18, 2019
Microsoft's GitHub acquires a code analysis tool called Semmle.
June 4, 2018
Microsoft, fully embracing a model it once saw as a threat, said on Monday that it was buying GitHub, an open software platform used by 28 million programmers, for $7.5 billion.

In a blog post, Chris Wanstrath, the company's chief executive and a co-founder, who will become a technical fellow at Microsoft, wrote that when GitHub started up a decade ago, he could have "never imagined" the outcome announced on Monday.

2015
GitHub was last valued at $2 billion back in 2015, and Microsoft is paying $7.5 billion in stock for the company in a deal that should close later this year.
2015
GitHub raised a $250 million round in 2015, led by Sequoia Capital.
2014
The $7.5 billion purchase, an all-stock deal, is the second-largest acquisition Microsoft has made since Mr. Nadella became chief executive in early 2014.
July 14, 2012
Andreessen Horowitz announced a whopping $100 million investment in GitHub this week.
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People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Brian Doll

Employee

Daisuke Horie

Employee

Devin Reams

Employee

Elizabeth Naramore

Employee

Garrett Bjerkhoel

Employee

Jared Koumentis

Employee

Joel Glovier

Employee

John Britton

Employee

Lee Reilly

Employee

Melissa Severini

Employee

Mike McQuaid

Employee

Nicci (Ciranna) Arsenault

Employee

PJ Hyett

Founder

Sahra Santosha

Employee

Tom Preston-Werner

Founder

Zachary Adam Kaplan

Employee

Further reading

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Author
Link
Type
Date

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
BBC News
January 18, 2021
BBC News
The Jewish employee had warned co-workers about the danger of Nazis during the Capitol Riots.
Megan Rose Dickey
January 17, 2021
TechCrunch
A GitHub internal investigation has revealed the company made "significant errors of judgment and procedure" in the firing of the Jewish employee who cautioned his coworkers about the presence of Nazis in the DC area on the day of insurrection at the U.S. Capitol. In a blog post today, GitHub COO Erica Brescia said the [...]
Tim Levin
January 17, 2021
Business Insider
The company sparked an uproar when it fired a Jewish employee who suggested that there were "Nazis" among the US capitol rioters.
Zoe Schiffer
January 17, 2021
The Verge
The news comes after the company hired an independent law firm to investigate the termination. GitHub's head of HR is also resigning.
Megan Rose Dickey
January 16, 2021
TechCrunch
This week kicked off with a report of a GitHub worker who was fired after cautioning his coworkers in the DC area to stay safe from Nazis during the assault on the U.S. Capitol. Meanwhile, Facebook created a new executive role pertaining to civil rights and California's Proposition 22 faced its first legal challenge this [...]
Megan Rose Dickey
January 15, 2021
TechCrunch
On the day a violent mob of Trump supporters stormed the U.S. Capitol, a worried GitHub employee warned his co-workers in the D.C. area to be safe. After making a comment in Slack saying, "stay safe homies, Nazis are about," a fellow employee took offense, saying that type of rhetoric wasn't good for work, the [...]
Zoe Schiffer
January 15, 2021
The Verge
Workers say they often talk about politics at work. Now, they're saying the word "Nazi" in Slack to protest what is being perceived as unfair treatment.
Rosalie Chan
January 14, 2021
Business Insider
PlanetScale, valued at $80 million, hired at least 10 GitHub workers -- including senior people -- since May. It has 43 employees total, via LinkedIn.
Zoe Schiffer
January 12, 2021
The Verge
The HR team at GitHub chastised the employee for using the word "Nazi" in the company Slack. Two days later, he was fired.
Rosalie Chan
January 12, 2021
Business Insider
Some 200 GitHub employees have signed an open letter looking for answers, as CEO Nat Friedman pledges an investigation.
IANS
January 6, 2021
@bsindia
Open Source repository GitHub has secured a license from the US government to offer its services to developers in Iran.
Nick Statt
January 5, 2021
The Verge
GitHub says it can now offer its full range of services to developers in Iran after it restricted access in 2019 due to US sanctions on the country.
Natasha Mascarenhas
January 5, 2021
TechCrunch
The rise of distributed teams in response to the coronavirus has led to more video-conferencing meetings for all of us. As offices remain closed, distributed work is forcing companies to figure out a better way than Zoom or Google Hangouts to meet with employees across time zones and teams. Rewatch wants to make meetings more [...]
Rosalie Chan
December 28, 2020
Business Insider
Open source developers have spent more time coding during the pandemic, including on weekends, according to GitHub's State of the Octoverse report
Robert Burnson | Bloomberg
December 22, 2020
@bsindia
WhatsApp accused the spyware maker of using a since-closed vulnerability in the messaging service to install spyware on the phones of at least 1,400 users
Aaron Holmes
December 21, 2020
Business Insider
A GitHub senior product manager told Business Insider about how the company pulled it off and how other websites could follow its example.
Tom Warren
December 17, 2020
The Verge
Microsoft is no longer using any third-party cookies on GitHub. This has allowed GitHub to remove its cookie banner, an annoying prompt you see on websites that use third-party cookies.
Frederic Lardinois
December 17, 2020
TechCrunch
Microsoft -owned GitHub today announced that it is doing away with all non-essential cookies on its platform. Thanks to this, starting today, GitHub .com and its subdomains will not feature a cookie banner anymore, either. That's one less cookie banner you'll have to click away to get your work done. "No one likes cookie banners," [...]
Anchore
December 16, 2020
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Today Anchore, Inc., the leading experts in continuous security and compliance for containers, announced the launch of a new partner program to...
Robin Wauters
December 1, 2020
Tech.eu
SuperNormal, a 'remote-first' startup building an AI platform for business video recordings, has secured $2 million in seed funding in a round led by EQT Ventures. A number of angel investors from the Nordics - the company has roots in Stockholm - also participated, including David Helgason (Unity), Hampus Jakobsson (Pale Blue Dot), Mattias Miksche [...]
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References

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