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GitHub

GitHub

Web-based hosting service for software development projects using git.

Github is based around a system of version control called Git. Git is an open-source version control system that was started by Linus Trovalds—the same person who created Linux. Git is similar to other version control systems, such as Subversion, CVS, Mercurial, and Bazaar.

Version control systems keep revisions organized by storing modifications in a central repository, or "repo." This allows developers to collaborate by downloading a new version of the software, making changes, and uploading the newest revision. Developers can see these new changes, download them, and contribute to them. When multiple people collaborate on a project, it's hard to keep track of revisions—who changed what, when, and where those files are stored. GitHub keeps track of all the changes that have been pushed to the repo. No coding is necessary to use Github.

"The concept is based around change: what is the right thing to do, what is the wrong thing?" said Tom Preston-Werner, GitHub's co-founder. "The efficiency of large groups working together is very low in large enterprises. We want to change that."

Features

Git has three core features: forking, pull requests, and merging.

"Forking" is when developers create a new project based off another project that already exists. If a user finds a project on GitHub that they would like to contribute to, they can fork the repo, make the desired changes, and release the revised project as a new repo. If the original repository that was forked to create the new project is updated, those updates can be added to the current fork.This feature encourages the further development of programs and other projects.

A pull request is opened when a user is proposing changes and requesting that someone review and pull in their contribution. Pull requests show differences in the content from both branches, and the user can collaborate and ask for feedback from other users regarding the project.Once the pull request is complete, the changes can then be merged with the initial project.

Besides its public-facing, open-source repositories, GitHub also sells private repositories and on-premise instances of its software for enterprises. This is GitHub's money making feature. Companies pay to use GitHub primarily for its collaboration features. It has become a popular way for people to do all kinds of software work; in 2012 its number of users jumped to 2.8 million from 1.2 million. The number of repositories increased to 4.6 million from 1.7 million the prior year. Solutions for private repositories do not utilize GitHub's network effect, but they are able to use the collaboration features.

Company culture

GitHub has no managers among its 140 employees. "Everyone has management interests," said cofounder Preston-Werner. "People can work on things that are interesting to them. Companies should exist to optimize happiness, not money. Profits follow."

GitHub's popularity has also made it an important way for companies to recruit engineers, who can show their work or collaborate on the work of others, inside some of the public pull requests. Software engineers routinely include links to their GitHub projects on their resumés, and companies scout for job candidates on GitHub.

Microsoft acquisition

In June of 2018, Microsoft acquired GitHub. This is Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella's second big acquisition, following the $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn two years prior. GitHub was valued at $2 billion in 2015, and Microsoft payed $7.5 billion in stock for the company.

At the time of acquisition, executives from both companies insisted that GitHub would remain technologically neutral, welcoming developers to use any code or any cloud service, rather than a Microsoft-walled garden.

Timeline

March 16, 2020
GitHub buys JavaScript packaging vendor npm for an undisclosed amount.
March 12, 2020
GitHub launches new tools for teachers, including autograding

GitHub announces two new features for GitHub Classroom, its set of tools for helping computer science teachers assign and evaluate coding exercises.

November 13, 2019
GitHub launches GitHub Actions to the general public.

GitHub Actions is a system for automating tasks like building, testing, and deploying software. The beta was launched in 2018 and it is now available to everyone.

October 4, 2019
GitHub announces that Rachel Potvin will join as its new vice president of data.

September 18, 2019
Microsoft's GitHub acquires a code analysis tool called Semmle.
June 4, 2018
Microsoft, fully embracing a model it once saw as a threat, said on Monday that it was buying GitHub, an open software platform used by 28 million programmers, for $7.5 billion.

In a blog post, Chris Wanstrath, the company's chief executive and a co-founder, who will become a technical fellow at Microsoft, wrote that when GitHub started up a decade ago, he could have "never imagined" the outcome announced on Monday.

July 2015
GitHub raises a $250,000,000 series B round from Andreessen Horowitz, IVP, Sequoia Capital and Thrive Capital.
2015
GitHub raised a $250 million round in 2015, led by Sequoia Capital.
2015
GitHub was last valued at $2 billion back in 2015, and Microsoft is paying $7.5 billion in stock for the company in a deal that should close later this year.
2014
The $7.5 billion purchase, an all-stock deal, is the second-largest acquisition Microsoft has made since Mr. Nadella became chief executive in early 2014.
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Funding rounds

Funding round
Funding type
Funding round amount (USD)
Funding round date
Investment
GitHub Series B round, July 2015
250,000,000
July 2015
4 Results
Results per page:
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Acquisitions

Acquisition
Acquired company
Acquisition amount (USD)
Date announced
September 18, 2019
1 Result
Results per page:
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People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Brian Doll

Employee

Daisuke Horie

Employee

Devin Reams

Employee

Elizabeth Naramore

Employee

Garrett Bjerkhoel

Employee

Jared Koumentis

Employee

Joel Glovier

Employee

John Britton

Employee

Lee Reilly

Employee

Melissa Severini

Employee

Mike McQuaid

Employee

Nicci (Ciranna) Arsenault

Employee

PJ Hyett

Founder

Sahra Santosha

Employee

Tom Preston-Werner

Founder

Zachary Adam Kaplan

Employee

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
Ron Miller
May 4, 2021
TechCrunch
An issue every developer faces is dealing with problems on a live application without messing it up. In fact, in many companies such access is restricted. Cased, an early stage startup, has come up with a solution to provide a way to work safely with the live application. Today, the company announced a $2.25 million [...]
Akira Cortal
April 29, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
Because of the stochasticity associated with high-throughput single-cell sequencing, current methods for exploring cell-type diversity rely on clustering-based computational approaches in which heterogeneity is characterized at cell subpopulation rather than at full single-cell resolution. Here we present Cell-ID, a clustering-free multivariate statistical method for the robust extraction of per-cell gene signatures from single-cell sequencing data. We applied Cell-ID to data from multiple human and mouse samples, including blood cells, pancreatic islets and airway, intestinal and olfactory epithelium, as well as to comprehensive mouse cell atlas datasets. We demonstrate that Cell-ID signatures are reproducible across different donors, tissues of origin, species and single-cell omics technologies, and can be used for automatic cell-type annotation and cell matching across datasets. Cell-ID improves biological interpretation at individual cell level, enabling discovery of previously uncharacterized rare cell types or cell states. Cell-ID is distributed as an open-source R software package. Cell-ID facilitates the analysis of cell-type heterogeneity and cell identity across multiple samples at the single-cell level.
Chao Gao
April 19, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
Integrating large single-cell gene expression, chromatin accessibility and DNA methylation datasets requires general and scalable computational approaches. Here we describe online integrative non-negative matrix factorization (iNMF), an algorithm for integrating large, diverse and continually arriving single-cell datasets. Our approach scales to arbitrarily large numbers of cells using fixed memory, iteratively incorporates new datasets as they are generated and allows many users to simultaneously analyze a single copy of a large dataset by streaming it over the internet. Iterative data addition can also be used to map new data to a reference dataset. Comparisons with previous methods indicate that the improvements in efficiency do not sacrifice dataset alignment and cluster preservation performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of online iNMF by integrating more than 1 million cells on a standard laptop, integrating large single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomic datasets, and iteratively constructing a single-cell multi-omic atlas of the mouse motor cortex. A new algorithm enables scalable and iterative integration of single-cell datasets.
Dan Goodin
April 16, 2021
Ars Technica
AWS credentials and private repository tokens could allow self-perpetuating attacks.
Jennifer F. Hu
April 15, 2021
Nature Biotechnology
Current next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) methods do not provide accurate quantification of small RNAs within a sample, due to sequence-dependent biases in capture, ligation and amplification during library preparation. We present a method, absolute quantification RNA-sequencing (AQRNA-seq), that minimizes biases and provides a direct, linear correlation between sequencing read count and copy number for all small RNAs in a sample. Library preparation and data processing were optimized and validated using a 963-member microRNA reference library, oligonucleotide standards of varying length, and RNA blots. Application of AQRNA-seq to a panel of human cancer cells revealed >800 detectable miRNAs that varied during cancer progression, while application to bacterial transfer RNA pools, with the challenges of secondary structure and abundant modifications, revealed 80-fold variation in tRNA isoacceptor levels, stress-induced site-specific tRNA fragmentation, quantitative modification maps, and evidence for stress-induced, tRNA-driven, codon-biased translation. AQRNA-seq thus provides a versatile means to quantitatively map the small RNA landscape in cells. AQRNA-seq allows accurate quantification of small RNAs.
April 15, 2021
The Indian Express
GitHub, has announced an Open Source Grants for Indian developers, where it will offer a total sum of Rs 1 crore. The program will support and fund open source maintainers and contributors in their work.
April 15, 2021
The Indian Express
GitHub, has announced an Open Source Grants for Indian developers, where it will offer a total sum of Rs 1 crore. The program will support and fund open source maintainers and contributors in their work.
Frederic Lardinois
April 13, 2021
TechCrunch
1Password, the password management service that competes with the likes of LastPass and BitWarden, today announced a major push beyond the basics of password management and into the infrastructure secrets management space. To do so, the company has acquired secrets management service SecretHub and is now launching its new 1Password Secrets Automation service. 1Password did [...]
Aaron Holmes
April 12, 2021
Business Insider
GitHub is also partnering with firms like Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud to secure open source.
Josh Taylor
March 30, 2021
the Guardian
The mRNA sequence for the Moderna coronavirus vaccine, pictured, had not previously been published. Photograph: Sergio Flores/Getty Images
Josh Taylor
March 30, 2021
the Guardian
Stanford University scientists determine sequences of Pfizer and Moderna vaccines from vials set to be discarded
Dan Goodin
March 29, 2021
Ars Technica
Code gave code-execution powers to anyone who knew the secret password: "zerodium."
Tom Warren
March 26, 2021
The Verge
Microsoft is reportedly in "exclusive talks" to acquire Discord. This follows attempts to acquire TikTok and Pinterest, and it shows that Microsoft is interested in owning its own online community.
Jay Peters
March 16, 2021
The Verge
A Jewish GitHub employee who was fired for warning co-workers in Slack to stay safe from Nazis during the January 6th attack on the US Capitol has reached an "amicable resolution" with the company, the employee told TechCrunch. GitHub says that he employee declined to take his job back.
Megan Rose Dickey
March 15, 2021
TechCrunch
GitHub has reached an "amicable resolution" with the person the company fired in the aftermath of the attack on the U.S. Capitol in January, the former employee told TechCrunch. On the day a violent mob of Trump supporters stormed the U.S. Capitol, a worried GitHub employee warned his co-workers in the D.C. area to be [...]
Lily Hay Newman
March 13, 2021
Wired
Plus: A Molson-Coors hack, Github controversy, and more of the week's top security news.
Dan Goodin
March 11, 2021
Ars Technica
Microsoft-owned Github pulls down proof-of-concept code posted by researcher.
Rosalie Chan
February 28, 2021
Business Insider
Hong Kong has experienced significant growth in its number of source contributors on GitHub in the past three years as its tech industry grows.
Jeff Elder
February 27, 2021
Business Insider
SolarWinds told Congress that an intern used the password "solarwinds123" in 2017, but five experts say it was a larger cybersecurity issue.
Aaron Holmes
February 24, 2021
Business Insider
Open source projects power some of the world's most popular technologies and new GitHub exec Mike Hanley aims to make those projects safer.
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References

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