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GitHub

GitHub

Web-based hosting service for software development projects using git.

Github is based around a system of version control called Git. Git is an open-source version control system that was started by Linus Trovalds—the same person who created Linux. Git is similar to other version control systems, such as Subversion, CVS, Mercurial, and Bazaar.

Version control systems keep revisions organized by storing modifications in a central repository, or "repo." This allows developers to collaborate by downloading a new version of the software, making changes, and uploading the newest revision. Developers can see these new changes, download them, and contribute to them. When multiple people collaborate on a project, it's hard to keep track of revisions—who changed what, when, and where those files are stored. GitHub keeps track of all the changes that have been pushed to the repo. No coding is necessary to use Github.

"The concept is based around change: what is the right thing to do, what is the wrong thing?" said Tom Preston-Werner, GitHub's co-founder. "The efficiency of large groups working together is very low in large enterprises. We want to change that."

Features

Git has three core features: forking, pull requests, and merging.

"Forking" is when developers create a new project based off another project that already exists. If a user finds a project on GitHub that they would like to contribute to, they can fork the repo, make the desired changes, and release the revised project as a new repo. If the original repository that was forked to create the new project is updated, those updates can be added to the current fork.This feature encourages the further development of programs and other projects.

A pull request is opened when a user is proposing changes and requesting that someone review and pull in their contribution. Pull requests show differences in the content from both branches, and the user can collaborate and ask for feedback from other users regarding the project.Once the pull request is complete, the changes can then be merged with the initial project.

Besides its public-facing, open-source repositories, GitHub also sells private repositories and on-premise instances of its software for enterprises. This is GitHub's money making feature. Companies pay to use GitHub primarily for its collaboration features. It has become a popular way for people to do all kinds of software work; in 2012 its number of users jumped to 2.8 million from 1.2 million. The number of repositories increased to 4.6 million from 1.7 million the prior year. Solutions for private repositories do not utilize GitHub's network effect, but they are able to use the collaboration features.

Company culture

GitHub has no managers among its 140 employees. "Everyone has management interests," said cofounder Preston-Werner. "People can work on things that are interesting to them. Companies should exist to optimize happiness, not money. Profits follow."

GitHub's popularity has also made it an important way for companies to recruit engineers, who can show their work or collaborate on the work of others, inside some of the public pull requests. Software engineers routinely include links to their GitHub projects on their resumés, and companies scout for job candidates on GitHub.

Microsoft acquisition

In June of 2018, Microsoft acquired GitHub. This is Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella's second big acquisition, following the $26.2 billion acquisition of LinkedIn two years prior. GitHub was valued at $2 billion in 2015, and Microsoft payed $7.5 billion in stock for the company.

At the time of acquisition, executives from both companies insisted that GitHub would remain technologically neutral, welcoming developers to use any code or any cloud service, rather than a Microsoft-walled garden.

Timeline

March 16, 2020
GitHub buys JavaScript packaging vendor npm for an undisclosed amount.
March 12, 2020
GitHub launches new tools for teachers, including autograding

GitHub announces two new features for GitHub Classroom, its set of tools for helping computer science teachers assign and evaluate coding exercises.

November 13, 2019
GitHub launches GitHub Actions to the general public.

GitHub Actions is a system for automating tasks like building, testing, and deploying software. The beta was launched in 2018 and it is now available to everyone.

October 4, 2019
GitHub announces that Rachel Potvin will join as its new vice president of data.

September 18, 2019
Microsoft's GitHub acquires a code analysis tool called Semmle.
June 4, 2018
Microsoft, fully embracing a model it once saw as a threat, said on Monday that it was buying GitHub, an open software platform used by 28 million programmers, for $7.5 billion.

In a blog post, Chris Wanstrath, the company's chief executive and a co-founder, who will become a technical fellow at Microsoft, wrote that when GitHub started up a decade ago, he could have "never imagined" the outcome announced on Monday.

July 2015
GitHub raises a $250,000,000 series B round from Andreessen Horowitz, IVP, Sequoia Capital and Thrive Capital.
2015
GitHub raised a $250 million round in 2015, led by Sequoia Capital.
2015
GitHub was last valued at $2 billion back in 2015, and Microsoft is paying $7.5 billion in stock for the company in a deal that should close later this year.
2014
The $7.5 billion purchase, an all-stock deal, is the second-largest acquisition Microsoft has made since Mr. Nadella became chief executive in early 2014.
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Funding rounds

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Brian Doll

Employee

Daisuke Horie

Employee

Devin Reams

Employee

Elizabeth Naramore

Employee

Garrett Bjerkhoel

Employee

Jared Koumentis

Employee

Joel Glovier

Employee

John Britton

Employee

Lee Reilly

Employee

Melissa Severini

Employee

Mike McQuaid

Employee

Nicci (Ciranna) Arsenault

Employee

PJ Hyett

Founder

Sahra Santosha

Employee

Tom Preston-Werner

Founder

Zachary Adam Kaplan

Employee

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
Ax Sharma
September 14, 2021
Ars Technica
Developers furious at Travis CI's "insanely embarrassing 'security bulletin.'"
Gareth Corfield
September 14, 2021
go.theregister.com
First try had a habit of melting its mirrors, apparently
Prasid Banerjee
September 9, 2021
mint
Smith said regulations formed in South Korea and Japan over the past week, which regulate how Google and Apple operate their App Stores, are perhaps the most significant tech regulations in 2021 so far
By Padraig Belton
September 6, 2021
BBC News
Artificial intelligence is getting better at penning code but still a long way from working alone.
Katyanna Quach
September 2, 2021
go.theregister.com
Joby hopes to push its service live in 2024
Katyanna Quach
August 12, 2021
go.theregister.com
Not a hardware or software bug, for a change
Laura Dobberstein
August 10, 2021
go.theregister.com
Industrial parks in Bac Giang, home to Apple and Samsung suppliers, battled shutdowns and skyrocketing COVID infections among workers since May
Mike Butcher
August 6, 2021
TechCrunch
High-quality UX for websites and apps is no longer a nice-to-have, it's a must-have if a company is to succeed. But scaling the impact of UX teams is not simple, and in recent years teams have turned to what's know as DesignOps platforms to help them. Now, a new startup hopes to become a key [...]
Mike Butcher
August 6, 2021
TechCrunch
High quality UX for websites and apps is no longer a nice-to-have, it's a must-have if a company is to succeed. But scaling the impact of UX teams is not simple, and in recent years teams have turned to what's know as DesignOps platforms to help them. Now, a new startup hopes to become a [...]
Science X staff
July 28, 2021
phys.org
Researchers have found that the perceived race and ethnicity of a software developer based on their online name may determine how their open-source software projects are judged by others.
Cat Ferguson
July 26, 2021
MIT Technology Review
Scientist racing to track the evolution of covid tap into a little-known system developed by a few young researchers in Scotland.
Matthew Sparkes
July 8, 2021
New Scientist
A Microsoft-owned tool powered by artificial intelligence is designed to make life easier for programmers, but some developers say it may be repurposing some of the billions of lines of code it was trained on without permission
The Economist
July 7, 2021
The Economist
The software engineers of the future will, themselves, be software
Sowmya Ramasubramanian
July 7, 2021
The Hindu
Audacity has been available as an open-source software since 2000, which means the application's original source code has been made freely available and can be redistributed and modified.
Matt Dupuy
July 6, 2021
go.theregister.com
It's fine: they'll just be used for searching disaster sites, checking structures, spying on people
Katyanna Quach
June 30, 2021
go.theregister.com
Well, that was a busy month for gravitational wave boffins
Anthony Heddings
May 28, 2021
www.cloudsavvyit.com
SSH agent forwarding allows you to use your private, local SSH key remotely without worrying about leaving confidential data on the server you're working with. It's built into ssh, and is easy to set up and use.
Khari Johnson
May 26, 2021
Wired
Microsoft reveals plans to bring GPT-3, best known for generating text, to programming. "The code writes itself," CEO Satya Nadella says.
May 25, 2021
WebWire
As the world works to address the urgent carbon crisis, more companies than ever before are making environmental impact pledges to be carbon neutral or carbon negative. Accenture, GitHub, Microsoft and ThoughtWorks are proud to be among the companies that have made commitments to help address the global climate crisis, but as an industry, we can come together to accomplish more. Today, at Microsoft's annual (virtual) Build Developers Conference, software development is front and center an...
Gopal Sathe
May 24, 2021
NDTV Gadgets 360
Security researcher Sai Krishna Kothapalli found a loophole in the government's SMS publishing platform that could allow anyone to send a message while posing as an official government account. This particular loophole has been fixed now.
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References

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