Country in northern Europe

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta; Swedish: Republiken Finland), is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east. Finland is a Nordic country and is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia. The capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Vantaa, Tampere, Oulu and Turku.

Finland's population is 5.52 million (2018), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 87.6% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; next come the Finland-Swedes (5.2%). Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. 


Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended, approximately 9000 BCE. The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia, Russia, and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers, using stone tools. The first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE, when the Comb Ceramic culture was introduced. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas - Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia - as reflected in contemporary jewellery.

From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Salla, Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. 

Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and finally the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999. 

Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but also in material, such as ships and machinery. This forced Finland to industrialize. It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011-2016 in the Fragile States Index, and second in the Global Gender Gap Report. It also ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.




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February 12, 2020
Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for infantile rickets. This deficiency results in neonatal development and poor fetal growth. Also predispose to preeclampsia, preterm birth, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Low levels of vitamin D are also associated with the increased risk of Asthma in children. The researchers of Columbia University, New York ...
Reuters Editorial
February 11, 2020
Finland's biggest game maker Supercell reported on Tuesday its full-year 2019 sales rose 2% to 1.39 billion euros ($1.52 billion) although core earnings slipped 4%.
Press Trust of India
February 9, 2020
Besides Germany, Britain and Italy, other European nations with cases of the virus include France, Russia, Belgium, Sweden, Finland and Spain.
Peter Walker
February 8, 2020
the Guardian
The Winter cycling Congress took place in the city of Joensuu in eastern Finland. Photograph: Lev Karavanov
December 18, 2019
Hyatt Hotels Corporation (NYSE: H) announced today that a Hyatt affiliate has entered into a franchise agreement with Primehotels Oy for the first Hyatt property in Finland. Expected to open in 2022, the 224-room Grand Hansa Hotel will become the first The Unbound Collection by Hyatt property in the Nordics as the brand enjoys continued momentum across Europe. Incorporating references to Finnish folklore and mythology, Grand Hansa Hotel's historical façade will represent the city's fasc...
Our Foreign Staff
December 14, 2019
The Telegraph
Finland made a rare appearance in headlines this week after after a female-led coalition took power under the leadership of Sanna Marin, who at 34 is the world's youngest prime minister.
Richard Milne
December 9, 2019
News, analysis and comment from the Financial Times, the world's leading global business publication
Rosie Perper
December 9, 2019
Business Insider
The parties in Finland's coalition government are also headed by women, four of whom are under the age of 35.
Alexandra Ma
December 5, 2019
Business Insider
The man built fake border posts in the Vyborg region, Interfax reported, and took the men on an extended route along a series of roads.
Nataliya Vasilyeva
December 5, 2019
The Telegraph
Border guards in Russia's north west last week arrested a man who had set up a bogus border outpost with Finland and taken thousands of euros from migrants for what they thought was a journey through the woods to the European Union.
December 4, 2019
Former CEO of Stora Enso, Karl-Henrik Sundström, has been awarded the decoration of Commander, First Class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland. The decoration awarded to foreign nationals is a public recognition by the President of Finland for long-term work benefiting Finnish interests. , , , , "The decoration of Commander, First Class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland is a recognition for the successful work Sundström performed at Stora Enso and with the forest industry while also contr...
T E Narasimhan
November 25, 2019
Read more about Finland's Salcomp buys Nokia's defunct unit near Chennai for Rs 215 cr on Business Standard. Salcomp may start operations at the plant by next year, is likely to invest $300 mn over next 5 years
Reuters Editorial
November 24, 2019
Finland's national airline Finnair said on Sunday it was forced to cancel 276 flights scheduled for Sunday and Monday after attempts to settle a labor dispute at the Finnish postal service failed, leading several Finnish labor unions to join a solidarity strike on Monday.
Kati Pohjanpalo | Bloomberg
November 21, 2019
Read more about Finland has an app to calculate carbon footprint based on user's purchases on Business Standard. Unlike other carbon-footprint calculators already on the market, the application developed by a Finnish payment services provider does not rely on users inputting the data manually
Gege Li
November 13, 2019
New Scientist
A combination of cold weather and just the right amount of wave motion has caused strange frozen spheres to cover a Finnish beach
Meaghan Wray
November 7, 2019
Global News
"It was an amazing view," amateur photographer Risto Mattila said. "I have never seen this phenomenon before."
Roland Oliphant
November 1, 2019
The Telegraph
Foreigners buying property in Finland will have to seek permission from the country's ministry of defence amid concerns that hostile intelligence agencies have been building up real estate portfolios in the country.
By JARI TANNER, Associated Press
October 28, 2019
Houston Chronicle
HELSINKI (AP) - In a glimpse of the future, an entire sports event has been run on horse manure. The world's governing equestrian body on Monday praised a climate-friendly scheme by a Finnish equestrian event to generate all its electricity needs from horse manure, saying the initiative paves way in cutting reliance on fossil fuels in horse sports. A delegation from the Lausanne, Switzerland-based International Federation for Equestrian Sports, or FEI, visited the four-day Helsinki International Horse Show, which ended Sunday, to get acquainted with the manure-to-energy technology developed by Finnish utility Fortum. FEI President Ingmar De Vos said the system proves that "ideas for alternative energy solutions can come from the most unlikely places." Over 150 megawatt hours of energy was created from the 100 tons of manure collected from competing horses during the event in the Finnish capital, which hosted the FEI World Cup jumping qualifier. That was enough to meet the event's entire electric needs, including lighting, scoreboards and cellphone charging stations at the venue, an ice hockey arena packed with crowds, FEI said. It also generated surplus energy that was distributed back into the Finnish national grid to heat homes in the Helsinki area. De Vos endorsed the horse show organizer's ecological "Helsinki Jumps Green" project as "a tremendous contribution" to equestrian sport and said it helped not only the local community but was also taking forward the federation's push for more sustainable horse sports globally. Anssi Paalanen, the vice president of Fortum Horsepower, told The Associated Press the manure-gathering scheme took off as an internal startup project five years ago. It has since grown into a full-fledged business, with 70,000 tons of manure...
Reuters Editorial
October 1, 2019
United States President Donald Trump and Finnish President Sauli Niinisto on Wednesday will discuss ways to improve 5G alternatives to China's Huawei Technologies and ZTE, such as Finland' Nokia, a senior administration official said.
Mattha Busby
September 23, 2019
the Guardian
Campaigners will urge Unicode Consortium managers to add the winning idea to the collection Photograph: Westend61/Getty Images