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Evolution of Platforms

Evolution of Platforms

Evolution of platforms refers to the changing standards and expectations for broadcasting and media distribution.

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Edits on 7 Jul, 2021
Amy Tomlinson Gayle
Amy Tomlinson Gayle edited on 7 Jul, 2021
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Netflix's push for original content, mirrored by competitor Amazon Prime and later Disney Plus, came not only from a desire to build the catalog of the streaming service and to offer exclusive shows and services, but also to compete with major media conglomerates that were beginning to build their own streaming services and would begin to pull content away from the aggregating platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime, in favor of their own services. This saw Netflix spend $12 billion to build a library of exclusive and original content, taking Netflix from platform technology to media producer. And, arguablyArguably, the success of services such as Netflix and Amazon Prime legitimizes the streaming service model, creating a proliferation of services and the continued push for new content.

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OTT devices offer a way forward that can combine traditional broadcasting services and a place where users can find multiple streaming platforms in their applications. And, with the wider adoption of OTT devices and the inclusion of these devices in Smart TVs, they offer a place where broadcasters can offer live events, such as sporting events. And OTT can offer VOD services or pay-per-view services. In this way, a user, through an OTT, has a single place where they can find apps for streaming services such as Netflix or Disney Plus, but also a place to access more specific or thematic streaming services such as Crunchyroll, Shudder, Dekkoo, or oQQur.

...

As these platforms are often aggregators of streaming services and related content, the user experience (UX) of the OTT platforms is arguably of greater importance for the adoption of users. This is especially true as most OTT platforms all offer the same main streaming services, and may only differentiate in more user specific scenarios. The trend in UX is towards an aesthetically-pleasing platform, although based on personal taste this is more often called "pleasing to the eye", as well the platform needs to be easy to navigate, with the platform that is easy to navigate garnering greater consumers. And, as part of UX, the ability for OTT platforms to connect to different devices and offer greater compatibility also offers a greater competitive advantage.

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Apple TV devices are the oldest series of OTT streaming devices, originally launching as iTV in 2007, and changing the name to Apple TV later, due to copyright concerns with British television channel ITV. These devices offer applications for different content streaming platforms, including Apple TV Plus, Amazon Prime Video, and Netflix. As well, the devices have been developed to offer 1080p HD content and 4K ultra-HD streaming content, with support for HDR10, Dolby Vision, and Dolby Atmos standards. And theThe purchase of additional remotes offers support for voice commands.

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And, asAs other OTT devices began to offer support for live news and sports streaming, the Apple TV devices have also offered them for users in the United States. The Apple TV devices offer a user interface designed with the intention of providing ease of use, and mirroring design language and user interface choices among other Apple devices such as the iPad and iPhone to provide a consistent experience across devices. And, through Apple's integration of the company's HomeKit application, the Apple TV devices can be connected to other connected devices in a space.

...

Roku is a family of streaming media OTT devices originally launched in 2008 as a DVP devicedevices. These devices are intended to offer users a simple way to access streaming video and audio content on television, similar to the devices offered by Google, Apple, and Amazon. The deviceRoku offers users watching content through different content providers and their applications. As well, Roku licenses their technology out, and it has been built into soundbars, such as those offered by Onn, and included in televisions made by manufacturers such as TCL, RCA, Toshiba, and Hisense. These devices allow users to access paid-content options, such as Netflix, and offer free content from available sources. For example, Roku offers the Roku Channel, which is a collection of free-to-watch and ad-supported shows and movies, which can also be enhanced with optional paid subscription services, such as Starz, Epix, and Showtime. And, users can access free live TV streaming channels, including providers such as ABC News Live, NowThis, and Reuters.

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Fire TV is an OTT device offered by Amazon. The device allows users to access streaming content applications, including Amazon's Prime Video service, and offers video-on-demand services. Many Fire TV devices offer voice support and Amazon's AI assistant, Alexa. Through Fire TV, users are also able to stream live TV from various networks and use a Fire TV device to watch and record live TV with Fire TV Recast and an HD antenna. Similar to other OTT services, the Fire TV services work over WiFi, and more expensive models offer ethernet connectivity for more stable connections, with content able to be streamed in 1080p HD and, with more expensive models, in 4K ultra-HD.

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During the COVID-19 pandemic, Fire TV saw an increase of around 115 percent in the use of the OTT device for streaming fitness classes of around 115 percent year-over-year, and,. evenEven with an expected reduction in users post-COVID-19 pandemic, Fire TV and parent company Amazon expect these and similar services to continue to grow. Part of these developments have also included a Fire TV news application, offering local news from over 80eighty cities. And, withWith the early success of this application, Amazon and Fire TV is expected to include new coverage from national news outlets and local news outlets for more locations.

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As with other Amazon services, Fire TV has been included in televisions sold through Amazon, and through other retailers, and where; the built-in Fire TV offers similar services to generic Smart TV. And, withWith the expansion of 5G, Fire TV and Amazon are developing the capability to offer their service in vehicles. The first vehicles to launch the service built-in are the Jeep and Jeep Wagonners. The early-focusearly focus is on rear-seat entertainment, with the possibility that as cars become autonomous, the entertainment could end up in a vehicle's infotainment system.

...

Reelgood is a content aggregator application. SimilarIt is similar to the OTT devices and the services they offer, except Reelgood does not offer an OTT device, and rather can instead be installed as an application on the OTT devices. The content available through Reelgood includes every major streaming option in the United States, and offers; the content incan be accessed through the single application without having to go through individual applications. For example, rather than having to watch Netflix content through the Netflix application, a user can enter the Reelgood application, where they can browse Netflix content, as well as Disney Plus Content, orand HBO Max content, without leaving or entering new applications.

Aleksander Holm
Aleksander Holm edited on 7 Jul, 2021
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Apple TV

Apple TV devices are the oldest series of OTT streaming devices, originally launching as iTV in 2007, and changing the name to Apple TV later due to copyright concerns with British television channel ITV. These devices offer applications for different content streaming platforms, including Apple TV Plus, Amazon Prime Video, and Netflix. As well, the devices have been developed to offer 1080p HD content and 4K ultra-HD streaming content, with support for HDR10, Dolby Vision, and Dolby Atmos standards. And the purchase of additional remotes offers support for voice commands.

And, as other OTT devices began to offer support for live news and sports streaming, the Apple TV devices have also offered them for users in the United States. The Apple TV devices offer a user interface designed with the intention of providing ease of use, and mirroring design language and user interface choices among other Apple devices such as the iPad and iPhone to provide a consistent experience across devices. And, through Apple's integration of the company's HomeKit application, the Apple TV devices can be connected to other connected devices in a space.

Roku

Roku is a family of streaming media OTT devices originally launched in 2008 as a DVP device. These devices are intended to offer users a simple way to access streaming video and audio content on television, similar to the devices offered by Google, Apple, and Amazon. The device offers users watching content through different content providers and their applications. As well, Roku licenses their technology out and has been built into soundbars, such as those offered by Onn, and included in televisions made by manufacturers such as TCL, RCA, Toshiba, and Hisense. These devices allow users to access paid-content options, such as Netflix, and offer free content from available sources. For example, Roku offers the Roku Channel, which is a collection of free-to-watch and ad-supported shows and movies, which can also be enhanced with optional paid subscription services, such as Starz, Epix, and Showtime. And, users can access free live TV streaming channels, including providers such as ABC News Live, NowThis, and Reuters.

Fire TV

Fire TV is an OTT device offered by Amazon. The device allows users to access streaming content applications, including Amazon's Prime Video service, and offers video-on-demand services. Many Fire TV devices offer voice support and Amazon's AI assistant Alexa. Through Fire TV, users are also able to stream live TV from various networks and use a Fire TV device to watch and record live TV with Fire TV Recast and an HD antenna. Similar to other OTT services, the Fire TV services work over WiFi, and more expensive models offer ethernet connectivity for more stable connections, with content able to be streamed in 1080p HD and, with more expensive models, in 4K ultra-HD.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Fire TV saw an increase in the use of the OTT device for streaming fitness classes of around 115 percent year-over-year, and, even with an expected reduction in users post-COVID-19 pandemic, Fire TV and parent company Amazon expect these and similar services to continue to grow. Part of these developments have also included a Fire TV news application offering local news from over 80 cities. And, with the early success of this application, Amazon and Fire TV is expected to include new coverage from national news outlets and local news outlets for more locations.

As with other Amazon services, Fire TV has been included in televisions sold through Amazon, and through other retailers, and where the built-in Fire TV offers similar services to generic Smart TV. And, with the expansion of 5G, Fire TV and Amazon are developing the capability to offer their service in vehicles. The first vehicles to launch the service built-in are the Jeep and Jeep Wagonners. The early-focus is on rear-seat entertainment, with the possibility that as cars become autonomous, the entertainment could end up in a vehicle's infotainment system.

Reelgood

Reelgood is a content aggregator application. Similar to the OTT devices and the services they offer, except Reelgood does not offer an OTT device, and rather can be installed as an application on the OTT devices. The content available through Reelgood includes every major streaming option in the United States, and offers the content in the single application without having to go through individual applications. For example, rather than having to watch Netflix content through the Netflix application, a user can enter the Reelgood application where they can browse Netflix content, as well as Disney Plus Content, or HBO Max content, without leaving or entering new applications.

Edits on 29 Jun, 2021
Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jun, 2021
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Part of this success was also due to the wide availability of the streaming service, which was able to be viewed on all platforms with in-browser viewing and applications for iOS and Android available at launch, as well as support for the service on Apple TV, Google Chromecast, Android TV, PlayStation, Roku, Xbox, Amazon Fire TV devices, LG smart TVs, and SamsungSamsung Smart TVs. The wide OTT support allowed users of most widely available devices to access the platform, unlike Apple TV Plus, an original content streaming platform that was originally only available on Apple devices. And the wide region availability has allowed users globally to sign up to the service.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jun, 2021
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OTT devices offer a way forward that can combine traditional broadcasting services and a place where users can find multiple streaming platforms in their applications. And, with the wider adoption of OTT devices and the inclusion of these devices in Smart TVs, they offer a place where broadcasters can offer live events, such as sporting events. And OTT can offer VOD services or pay-per-view services. In this way, a user, through an OTT, has a single place where they can find apps for streaming services such as Netflix or Disney Plus, but also a place to access more specific or thematic streaming services such as Crunchyroll, ShudderShudder, Dekkoo, or oQQur.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jun, 2021
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Other Google and Android applications are accessible through the Google TV system, which further integrates the ecosystem into a viewing experience. And Google TV includes the Google AssistantGoogle Assistant for voice-based search, as well as voice-based commands when used with a Google Assistant-enabled device, such as the Google Chromecast with Google TV. As well, the Google TV platform offers a "For You" tab, which offers features from a viewer's favorite applications or movies or shows in-progress, and some tailored recommendations. The platform and related devices also offer up to 4K streaming and an aggregated platform with the promise of users not needing to switch between downloaded applications for content, but rather the content being accessible through the platforms home screen.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
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OTT devices offer a way forward that can combine traditional broadcasting services and a place where users can find multiple streaming platforms in their applications. And, with the wider adoption of OTT devices and the inclusion of these devices in Smart TVs, they offer a place where broadcasters can offer live events, such as sporting events. And OTT can offer VOD services or pay-per-view services. In this way, a user, through an OTT, has a single place where they can find apps for streaming services such as Netflix or Disney Plus, but also a place to access more specific or thematic streaming services such as CrunchyrollCrunchyroll, Shudder, Dekkoo, or oQQur.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
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Streaming live events without latency and with stability is bandwidth intense, which is in part the reason why much of live streaminglive streaming events and sporting events remains on broadcast television, where the systems for live event streaming has been in place for longer. But, with new network technologies like 5G, there is the possibility of faster and more reliable internet, making it easer to stream live events with lower latency and greater stability, competing with broadcasters. Higher bandwidth internet connectivity also offers higher quality, such as 4K, streaming, and the possibility for virtual reality and 360 live streaming opportunities, with easer integration than trying to use similar technologies through traditional broadcasts.

Amy Tomlinson Gayle
Amy Tomlinson Gayle edited on 28 Jun, 2021
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The goldenGolden ageAge of televisionTelevision

OftenThe 1950s is often called the goldenGolden ageAge of television, emergingTelevision. inDuring thethis 1950stime, television hadsets becomebecame widely available and the color television was emerging and available. This technology was based on an all electronic color transmission standard that was developed by the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC), which was a group of companies with a financial interest in the development of a color television standard. This standard was in competition with a CBS-sponsored system, which initially won the support of the FCC, until 1953. In 1953, the FCC reversed its decision and approved the NTSC's RCA color system.

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YouTube was created in 2005 by three PayPal engineers. The service was initially intended to be a social media platform for users on which to to post, upload, share, and view video content without restrictions. This, in turn, saw users upload personal videos, television clips, music videos, and movie clips that could be viewed worldwide. Unlike other services emerging around the time, such as Napster, YouTube navigated copyright infringement lawsuits by forming agreements with media corporations.

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Previously known as Android TV, Google TV is a refresh and upgrade of the OTT platform offered by Google, with the expectation that compatible hardware running Android TV will be upgraded to Google TV. The platform offers a place to collect a viewersviewer's favorite streaming applications, and from those applications offers a home screen with recommendations based on viewing history and a place for users to select a movie or show without directing through the specific streaming application. As well, with further integration into Google's Android operating system and the Chrome browser, users can add television shows or movies to their watchlist through the different service, meaning users would not have to log into the service or remember something thethey saw earlier.

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Other Google and Android applications are accessible through the Google TV system, which further integrates the ecosystem into a viewing experience. And Google TV includes the Google Assistant for voice-based search, as well as voice-based commands when used with a Google Assistant-enabled device, such as the Google Chromecast with Google TV. As well, the Google TV platform offers a "For You" tab, which offers features from a viewersviewer's favorite applications, or movies or shows in-progress, and some tailored recommendations. The platform and related devices also offer up to 4K streaming and an aggregated platform with the promise of users not needing to switch between downloaded applications for content, but rather the content being accessible through the platforms home screen.

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In this scenario, broadcasters would successfully switch to digital platforms with direct customer relationships and the capability to deliver on-demand products. This would require broadcasters to develop cognitive computing for targeted advertising and personalized recommendation functions. This would see a market structure where broadcaster and digital platforms coexist, with broadcasters focused on local content and digital platforms supplying global productions. This would give consumers the choice to watch linear or non-linear content. This would also require cooperation between local networks and network operators to help traditional broadcasters with digital media distribution and customer data, to develop platforms for broadcasters that could use the viewer data to further personalize advertising, which, in turn, would see advertisers helping broadcasters implement these advertising structures into their digital distribution platforms. For this scenario to work, there would need to be strong media regulation at a national level that would favor broadcasters over digital platforms.

Aleksander Holm
Aleksander Holm edited on 28 Jun, 2021
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The Future of Television
Emerging technologies
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Over-the-top (OTT)

OTT devices were originally named for devices that go "over" a cable box to give users access to TV content delivered via an internet connect rather than through a traditional cable provider. This includes devices such as smart TVs, Apple TVs, Chromecast, PlayStation, Xbox, Amazon Fire Sticks, and related devices. OTT viewing has increased as people have left traditional cable subscriptions in favor of streaming platforms. And for traditional cable providers, the ability to develop programming for OTT devices, either with a focus on local content or on live broadcasting, would allow those services to retain or increase viewership. OTT could also offer traditional cable providers or networks to offer diversified content and develop OTT-specific content. The providers of OTT devices are developing similar resources themselves to give consumers either region-specific or device-specific content for entertainment or information.

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Market domination scenarios
Evolution of multiple system operators

Another change that could see multiple system operators (MSO), such as Rogers Communications, Shaw Communications and Videotron in Canada; or Altice USA, Charter Communications, Comcast, and Cox Communications in the United States; or Virgin Media in the United Kingdom; evolve from operating the cable systems for television broadcasters to offer their bandwidth towards streaming services and off-cable networks. The MSO market has seen increased consolidation, such as Altice acquiring Cablevision and Suddenlink or Charter acquiring Time Warner Cable and Bright House. This consolidation can allow MSOs to increase their client base and deepen their commercial portfolio. This would allow MSOs to compete in the market as they increase their fiber portfolio.

MSOs have already moved from purely cable providers to ISP providers, and MSOs have begun offering OTT services themselves. They could limit the traffic over their networks to reduce the ability for non-MSO OTT service providers to compete in certain regions. Or as the market has moved towards OTT services and away from cable packages, MSOs could use their existing facilities to create access nodes and data centers usable by wireless and edge service providers. Access nodes for wireless competitors require location, power, backhaul, and maintenance, which MSOs could sell and provide OTT with, as well as local server space, power, and operators. And with edge services under MSO supervision, cable operators could also offer notice of performance issues, bandwidth constraints, or other problems.

Universal aggregation

Similar to this, MSOs could provide universal aggregation and increased choice and control of tangible business assets, such as coherent optics and pluggable dedicated and shared fiber. By supporting these services, including mobile services, aggregation could expand the MSO application space and help them provide the network speeds, feeds, and routing capability to support traffic from multiple service types. For MSOs to offer universal aggregation, these companies would have to build different access networks for different services. This could introduce a new version of simplicity to allow cable operators to bring their network to support a different type of services and support concurrent PON, IP, and Ethernet services without radical platform changes.

Over-the-top (OTT)

OTT devices were originally named for devices that go "over" a cable box to give users access to TV content delivered via an internet connect rather than through a traditional cable provider. This includes devices such as smart TVs, Apple TVs, Chromecast, PlayStation, Xbox, Amazon Fire Sticks, and related devices. OTT viewing has increased as people have left traditional cable subscriptions in favor of streaming platforms. And for traditional cable providers, the ability to develop programming for OTT devices, either with a focus on local content or on live broadcasting, would allow those services to retain or increase viewership. OTT could also offer traditional cable providers or networks to offer diversified content and develop OTT-specific content. The providers of OTT devices are developing similar resources themselves to give consumers either region-specific or device-specific content for entertainment or information.

OTT devices offer a way forward that can combine traditional broadcasting services and a place where users can find multiple streaming platforms in their applications. And, with the wider adoption of OTT devices and the inclusion of these devices in Smart TVs, they offer a place where broadcasters can offer live events, such as sporting events. And OTT can offer VOD services or pay-per-view services. In this way, a user, through an OTT, has a single place where they can find apps for streaming services such as Netflix or Disney Plus, but also a place to access more specific or thematic streaming services such as Crunchyroll, Shudder, Dekkoo, or oQQur.

Other new technology, such as artificial intelligence, 5G, and cloud computing and storage, streaming over OTT can be optimized for users and enable content providers and aggregations platforms a chance to differentiate services, expand the supported areas, and optimize the streaming.

New network standards and live event streaming

Streaming live events without latency and with stability is bandwidth intense, which is in part the reason why much of live streaming events and sporting events remains on broadcast television, where the systems for live event streaming has been in place for longer. But, with new network technologies like 5G, there is the possibility of faster and more reliable internet, making it easer to stream live events with lower latency and greater stability, competing with broadcasters. Higher bandwidth internet connectivity also offers higher quality, such as 4K, streaming, and the possibility for virtual reality and 360 live streaming opportunities, with easer integration than trying to use similar technologies through traditional broadcasts.

New Codecs

With new cloud-computing and storage for streaming and live streaming services, new video compression formats have been developed to decrease the bandwidth cost of streaming while offering the same or higher video quality. The first codec is a video compression format called Versatile Video Coding (H.266/VCC). The codec prepares video for streaming over the internet for shorter video load times, better video resolutions, and a reduction in the amount of necessary data for streaming video.

The other, competing, video codec intended to offer similar streaming optimization as H.266/VCC is the open source AV1. This codec, developed by the Alliance for Open Media, uses new compression technology to offer twice the efficiency, transmit higher quality video faster, and continue to offer high-quality experiences to end users in the case of constrained bandwidth. Unlike H.266/VCC, AV1 does not have licensing fees and is expected to have wider adoption among content creators and web browsers as they do not have to worry about licensing fees. The AV1 codec already has announced support from Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Samsung, and Mozilla.

OTT Platform competition

As OTT platforms continue to develop, the competition between services is expected to happen across two factors: the availability of content and the user experience.

Content

Content is arguably less important for OTT platforms, so long as they are able to provide a catalogue of available streaming platform applications for users to access and, likely, a video-on-demand service allowing users to rent digital versions of films or television series. However, with an increase in described "subscription fatigue", where consumers are less interested in increasing their subscriptions as more services are offered via subscription, an OTT platform capable of offering a personalized collection of services for a flexible pricing model, so that it does not become the packaging of content that cable providers have offered, but that it offers users a chance to pay and engage with a single platform while receiving the same experience the viewer is used is one way an OTT platform can compete and offer a greater service to the consumer.

User experience

As these platforms are often aggregators of streaming services and related content, the user experience (UX) of the OTT platforms is arguably of greater importance for the adoption of users. This is especially true as most OTT platforms all offer the same main streaming services, and may only differentiate in more user specific scenarios. The trend in UX is towards an aesthetically-pleasing platform, although based on personal taste this is more often called "pleasing to the eye", as well the platform needs to be easy to navigate, with the platform that is easy to navigate garnering greater consumers. And, as part of UX, the ability for OTT platforms to connect to different devices and offer greater compatibility also offers a greater competitive advantage.

Google TV/Android TV

Previously known as Android TV, Google TV is a refresh and upgrade of the OTT platform offered by Google, with the expectation that compatible hardware running Android TV will be upgraded to Google TV. The platform offers a place to collect a viewers favorite streaming applications, and from those applications offers a home screen with recommendations based on viewing history and a place for users to select a movie or show without directing through the specific streaming application. As well, with further integration into Google's Android operating system and the Chrome browser, users can add television shows or movies to their watchlist through the different service, meaning users would not have to log into the service or remember something the saw earlier.

Other Google and Android applications are accessible through the Google TV system, which further integrates the ecosystem into a viewing experience. And Google TV includes the Google Assistant for voice-based search, as well as voice-based commands when used with a Google Assistant-enabled device, such as the Google Chromecast with Google TV. As well, the Google TV platform offers a "For You" tab which offers features from a viewers favorite applications, or movies or shows in-progress, and some tailored recommendations. The platform and related devices also offer up to 4K streaming and an aggregated platform with the promise of users not needing to switch between downloaded applications for content, but rather the content being accessible through the platforms home screen.

Market maturation scenarios
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Universal supermarket
Universal supermarket
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Content endgame
Content endgame
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Broadcasters remain
Broadcasters remain
...
Lost in diversity
Lost in diversity
...
Evolution of multiple system operators

Another change that could see multiple system operators (MSO), such as Rogers Communications, Shaw Communications and Videotron in Canada; or Altice USA, Charter Communications, Comcast, and Cox Communications in the United States; or Virgin Media in the United Kingdom; evolve from operating the cable systems for television broadcasters to offer their bandwidth towards streaming services and off-cable networks. The MSO market has seen increased consolidation, such as Altice acquiring Cablevision and Suddenlink or Charter acquiring Time Warner Cable and Bright House. This consolidation can allow MSOs to increase their client base and deepen their commercial portfolio. This would allow MSOs to compete in the market as they increase their fiber portfolio.

MSOs have already moved from purely cable providers to ISP providers, and MSOs have begun offering OTT services themselves. They could limit the traffic over their networks to reduce the ability for non-MSO OTT service providers to compete in certain regions. Or as the market has moved towards OTT services and away from cable packages, MSOs could use their existing facilities to create access nodes and data centers usable by wireless and edge service providers. Access nodes for wireless competitors require location, power, backhaul, and maintenance, which MSOs could sell and provide OTT with, as well as local server space, power, and operators. And with edge services under MSO supervision, cable operators could also offer notice of performance issues, bandwidth constraints, or other problems.

Universal aggregation

Similar to this, MSOs could provide universal aggregation and increased choice and control of tangible business assets, such as coherent optics and pluggable dedicated and shared fiber. By supporting these services, including mobile services, aggregation could expand the MSO application space and help them provide the network speeds, feeds, and routing capability to support traffic from multiple service types. For MSOs to offer universal aggregation, these companies would have to build different access networks for different services. This could introduce a new version of simplicity to allow cable operators to bring their network to support a different type of services and support concurrent PON, IP, and Ethernet services without radical platform changes.

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

11 Huge Streaming Trends 2021 - 2025

Kyle Byers

Web

May 24, 2021

11 Huge Streaming Trends 2021-2025

Kyle Byers

Web

July 10, 2020

5 Reasons Why Disney+ Is Breaking Records While Making History

Tom Nunan

Web

August 5, 2020

AV1 & Media Codecs

Mozilla Research

Web

Timeline

June 7, 2021

The new video streaming codec, H.266/VVC will be published in fall 2020 and promises cheaper and higher quality video streaming.

December 2020

ABQQ.TV engages highly anticipated video streaming service targeting global multi-billion dollar and growing video streaming industry, will launch December 2020.

2008

YouTube partners with CNN to host presidential debate during the election cycle, featuring video questions submitted to the public. In the same year, seven of sixteen presidential candidates announce their campaigns on YouTube.

2008

YouTube partners with CNN to host presidential debate during the election cycle, featuring video questions submitted to the public. In the same year, seven of sixteen presidential candidates announce their campaigns on YouTube.
Edits on 23 Jun, 2021
Amy Tomlinson Gayle
Amy Tomlinson Gayle edited on 23 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
Article (+41/-71 characters)
Article

Television began as a black-and-white medium that built on the transmission methods demonstrated by radio, which offered a way to transmit information between two places without the use of a wire. By the end of World War II, radio was popular and most homes had a radio in them. At the same time, television was a new and emerging technology; but unlike radio, the early television sets were large and relatively expensive. Even though the first scheduled television service began in July of 1928, it was not until after the second World War, whenthat popularity increased—when the technological advantages in manufacturing developed during the war drove the cost of television sets down, that popularity increased. By 1962, 92 percent of homes in the United States owned a television. This made television one of the most important technological and cultural advancements of the 20th century from the mid-1950s on.

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Often called the golden age of television, emerging in the 1950s, television had become widely available and the color television was emerging and available during the decade. This technology was based on an all electronic color transmission standard that was developed by the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC), which was a group of companies with a financial interest in the development of a color television standard. This standard was in competition with a CBS-sponsored system, which initially won the support of the FCC, until 1953. In 1953, the FCC reversed its decision and approved the NTSC's RCA color system.

...

Later, YouTube launched YouTube Red, a subscription service that lets customers watch videos and stream music without ads and offers access to exclusive content. This was later renamed toas YouTube Premium, which spun off the music streaming service to a separate service called YouTube Music. In 2017, YouTube launched YouTube TV, an on-demand streaming service launched in select markets. This proliferation of services and options has allowed YouTube to compete in most avenues of the entertainment and broadcasting services and to compete directly with television and be part of the change in the consumption of media.

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Although not necessarily the first video on demand (VOD) service, and with a greater focus on television shows, Hulu was established in 2007 following a deal between NBC Universal, News Corporation, and a number of companies such as Yahoo!, AOL, MSN, and MySpace, to give users access to a library of television shows. This library included current shows with material syndicated to partner distribution rights, and older shows. Similar to YouTube, the platform was supported through advertising and was available only to viewers in the United States. By 2009, the site received more than 38 million viewers and delivered more videos than any site other than YouTube. The company was able to increase its advertiser base to 250 sponsors and generate $120 million in revenue.

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Arguably Netflix is arguably the most popular and successful of the streaming platforms, and is the first service to begin to convince consumers that they could do without cable subscriptions to linear television providers. The company was founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph as a video-rental company, where users paid a flat monthly fee for as many movies per month as they wished, but with a limit on the number of DVDs in their possession at one time dictated by their subscription plan. By 1999, this service was offered online.

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Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
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Another change that could see multiple system operators (MSO), such as Rogers CommunicationsRogers Communications, Shaw Communications and Videotron in Canada; or Altice USA, Charter Communications, Comcast, and Cox Communications in the United States; or Virgin Media in the United Kingdom; evolve from operating the cable systems for television broadcasters to offer their bandwidth towards streaming services and off-cable networks. The MSO market has seen increased consolidation, such as Altice acquiring Cablevision and Suddenlink or Charter acquiring Time Warner Cable and Bright House. This consolidation can allow MSOs to increase their client base and deepen their commercial portfolio. This would allow MSOs to compete in the market as they increase their fiber portfolio.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
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Similar to this, MSOs could provide universal aggregation and increased choice and control of tangible business assets, such as coherent optics and pluggable dedicated and shared fiber. By supporting these services, including mobile servicesmobile services, aggregation could expand the MSO application space and help them provide the network speeds, feeds, and routing capability to support traffic from multiple service types. For MSOs to offer universal aggregation, these companies would have to build different access networks for different services. This could introduce a new version of simplicity to allow cable operators to bring their network to support a different type of services and support concurrent PON, IP, and Ethernet services without radical platform changes.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
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Digital video recorders (DVRs) created a sea of change in the way consumers were able to watch shows. Previous to the introduction of services such as TiVoTiVo, consumers were able to purchase satellite or cable television packages where time-changing channels were available. Time changing allowed consumers to watch shows in a different time zone for some viewing flexibility. But the introduction of DVR allowed users to record shows to watch later and at their convenience. DVRs also offered consumers a chance to record not just new, but also older episodes of a favorite show. Advertisers used DVRs to track which shows were being viewed and offered targeted ads for these shows, which raised concerns from consumer groups and lawmakers.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
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However, in a reversal in the trend, Netflix offered a linear television channeltelevision channel in a pilot program available in France. The channel was presented as a remedy for viewing indecision and continued the traditional nature of Netflix binge-watching by offering up to five episodes of the same series back-to-back. In what seemed like a backwards move, Netflix Direct offered the streaming service as a promotional tool for those used to linear television as a chance to experience Netflix content and encourage new subscribers to join the service. As well, if offered to a wider audience, it has been suggested that Netflix would use Netflix Direct to release anticipated episodes in a fixed-time event. This way, the streaming service could turn the new episode into a viewing "experience" with a chance to go viral, similar to traditional shows on air times and live events.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
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Another change that could see multiple system operators (MSO), such as Rogers Communications, Shaw Communications and Videotron in Canada; or Altice USA, Charter Communications, Comcast, and Cox CommunicationsCox Communications in the United States; or Virgin Media in the United Kingdom; evolve from operating the cable systems for television broadcasters to offer their bandwidth towards streaming services and off-cable networks. The MSO market has seen increased consolidation, such as Altice acquiring Cablevision and Suddenlink or Charter acquiring Time Warner Cable and Bright House. This consolidation can allow MSOs to increase their client base and deepen their commercial portfolio. This would allow MSOs to compete in the market as they increase their fiber portfolio.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
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However, unlike YouTube, Hulu was dependent on the networks for its success, because Hulu was only successful through the syndicated programs. And as Hulu grew, networks became more concerned over threats the program had to the financial underpinning of cable TV, by reducing DVD sales and avoiding carriage fees. Broadcasters began to pull popular shows from the network. And following more disputes, Hulu turned off support for BoxeeBoxee, which was an over-the-top (OTT) service that allowed users to watch Hulu on their television. Until and after the shut down of support for Boxee, viewers were only able to watch Hulu on their computers. During this time, cable networks began to offer streaming for free on their own websites to stop viewers from watching elsewhere and generate additional advertising revenue. This began to affect the quality and quantity of advertisers that Hulu was able to attract. As well, Hulu was unable to produce any compelling original content to convince consumers to move to their platform.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
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Another change that could see multiple system operators (MSO), such as Rogers Communications, Shaw CommunicationsShaw Communications and Videotron in Canada; or Altice USA, Charter Communications, Comcast, and Cox Communications in the United States; or Virgin Media in the United Kingdom; evolve from operating the cable systems for television broadcasters to offer their bandwidth towards streaming services and off-cable networks. The MSO market has seen increased consolidation, such as Altice acquiring Cablevision and Suddenlink or Charter acquiring Time Warner Cable and Bright House. This consolidation can allow MSOs to increase their client base and deepen their commercial portfolio. This would allow MSOs to compete in the market as they increase their fiber portfolio.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
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For Quibi, the company was launching with the mobile-first, if not mobile-only, format for the platform intended not to compete with other VOD platforms such as Netflix, Hulu, or Disney Plus. Except around this time, services such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Disney Plus were adding to or announcing the upcoming ability to download select content to allow subscribers the opportunity to watch content on their mobile devices without data cost concerns, and competing directly with Quibi. Quibi did not see their potential viewers as a primetime audience, but rather as those viewing content on-the-go between 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. This had Quibi competing with the download capabilities and multi-platform capabilities of the other platforms, and competing with the viewership of YouTube or TikTokTikTok, both of which have massive catalogues of user-generated content.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
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These cancellations were due, in part, to licensing and exclusivity deals, with One Day at a Time produced by Sony Picture Television, not Netflix, and therefore costing more than it could be deemed to be worth in viewership. Another example was Netflix's fight to keep the television show Friends, which led the streaming service to pay $100 million to keep the sitcom on the site; but the deal was not a non-exclusive deal, allowing WarnerMediaWarnerMedia, the show's rights owners, to shop the show around to other streaming services. This kind of proliferation can lead to multiple services and platforms offering the same shows and undercut the competitive positions of the streaming platforms, while benefiting the cable networks and original producers of the content.

Neelam Jhaveri
Neelam Jhaveri approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 23 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
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Starting in 1928, NBC was the first broadcaster offering regular television programstelevision programs in the United States. Through the 1930s, rival CBS joined and began broadcasting regular programming. In order to ensure that broadcasters did not introduce new standards that would require consumers to purchase different television sets for different broadcasters, both NBC and CBS used the broadcasting standard set by the FCC. This technical standard included a recommended 525-line system with an image rate of thirty frames per second. The early analog systems were later replaced by digital signals, which broadcast by binary code rather than varying radio waves.

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