Enzymes that are physically attached to specific solid supports so that they can be used repeatedly and continuously while maintaining their catalytic activities. Enzyme immobilization is used in industrial processes and also is a component technology for products in medical diagnostics, therapy, food industry, bio energy and biomaterial detection. Techniques used for enzyme immobilization include entrapment, adsorption, covalent binding, encapsulation and cross linking.
The performance of an immobilized enzyme partly depends on the characteristics of the matrix. Ideal support properties include bio-compatibility, physical resistance to compression, inertness towards enzymes, hydrophilicity, ease of derivatization, resistance to microbial attack, and availability at low cost. The interaction between the enzyme and support provides an immobilized enzyme with particular biochemical and physicochemical properties that determine their applicability to specific processes.