rtyom started playing football in his native Cherkassy, played for the school team, took part in the games of the Leather Ball tournament. Then he continued his studies at the local SDUSHOR, where Alexey Yakovlevich Blokha became his first coach. Later he continued to study with another mentor - Sergei Ivanovich Sergienko. As part of the team of his sports school, he took part in the games of the Children's and Youth Football League of Ukraine. In 2013, he received an invitation to the youth team of Metalist Kharkiv, but during the preparatory camp he suffered a knee injury, after which he returned to Cherkasy. Having recovered from the injury, he continued to play in the youth team of Cherkassy.
On July 27, 2014, Dovbik signed a contract with Cherkasy Dnepr, who played in the Second League of Ukraine. On July 26, 2014, in the away match of the first round of the 2014/15 season, against the Skala (Stryi) team, Artyom made his professional football debut, replacing Alexander Batalsky in the 71st minute. In this match, the Cherkasy team was defeated with a score of 1: 0, after which its head coach Yuriy Bakalov was fired. The striker played his second official match on August 16. Already a new team coach - Igor Stolovitsky, in a home match of the 4th round against Kherson "Crystal", released a young player in the starting lineup. At the 42nd minute, Dovbyk equalized the score in the match, scoring his first goal in his professional career, besides becoming the youngest goal scorer in the history of professional clubs in Cherkasy, scoring a goal at the age of 17 years, 1 month and 25 days. In the match of the 12th round, against the Arsenal-Kyivshchyna team, Artyom came on as a substitute three minutes before the break and managed to score twice in the opponent's goal before the end of the half. In the second half, the striker scored another goal, scoring his first hat-trick in adult football, and also made an assist, thus making a decisive contribution to the defeat of the opponent. The productive game of the 17-year-old football player did not go unnoticed by the selectors of the clubs of the Ukrainian Premier League. After the end of the autumn part of the championship, Dovbik arrived at Dynamo Kiev for a trial. But the matter did not come to the conclusion of an agreement with the capital team, and the striker played for Cherkasy Dnepr until the end of the season.
In the summer of 2015, Dovbik signed a one-year contract with Dnipro Dnipro, immediately going with the first team to the training camp in Holland. But in the start of the championship, the Dnipro coach Miron Markevich trusted experienced legionnaires more, and the 18-year-old forward played for the youth team, playing for the main team only in the cup match against Olimpik Donetsk. Dynamo Kiev, Artyom spent the second part of the season on loan at the Moldavian Zorya. In April 2016, he went to the location of the club from the city of Balti, which was coached by Ukrainian specialist Igor Rakhaev. The young footballer practically did not play for his new team, taking part only in 3 matches of the elite division of Moldova and one cup match. On May 31, 2016, Dovbik simultaneously expired both the lease agreement and the contract with Dnipro.
The football player spent preparations for the 2016/17 season at the Ukrainian Premier League club Volyn, but due to the ban on transfer activities for the Lutsk club, he was forced to leave the team, returning to Dnipro, with whom he signed a new contract in early August 2016 , and already on August 13, in the match between Dnipro and Vorskla, Dovbik made his debut in the Ukrainian elite division, replacing his teammate Denis Balanyuk after the break. In the 2016/17 season, Artyom became one of the best players and the best young player in the UPL for several months. But, despite the brilliant play of the young football player, Dnipro, largely due to the removal of points for non-payment of debts to the former coaching staff of Dnipro, headed by Juande Ramos, left the top division of Ukraine for the first time in history, relegated to the First League. But FIFA, for the same debts, lowered Dnepr even lower, to the Second League. At the end of the 2016/17 season, Dovbik left the club. But a month later he returned, having played half of the season, and, having become Dnipro's top scorer in the first half of the season, he left the club on December 5, 2017.
On January 31, 2018, he signed a contract with the Danish Midtjylland . In half a season, he managed to play 10 matches and score 1 goal, became the champion of Denmark.
In 2015, he played 2 matches for the Ukrainian national team under 18.
On May 23, Dovbik received an invitation to the Ukrainian national team for the first time. Artyom received an invitation to a test match against the Malta national team and a qualifying match for the 2018 World Cup against Finland. But in both matches, Artyom did not enter the field.
On March 21, 2021, he was called up to the Ukrainian national team by head coach Andriy Shevchenko to participate in the 2022 World Cup qualifying matches against the national teams of France, Finland and Kazakhstan due to injuries to Artem Besedin and Viktor Tsygankov. On March 31, 2021, he made his debut for the Ukrainian national team in the home match of the third round of the 2022 World Cup qualifying tournament against the Kazakhstan national team (1: 1), coming on as a substitute in the 81st minute instead of Nikolay Shaparenko.
On June 29, 2021, in the 121st minute of extra time, he scored the winning goal in the match in the 1/8 finals of Euro 2020 against the Swedish national team, which allowed the Ukrainian team to reach the 1/4 finals of the European Championship for the first time.
- Winner of the Second League of Ukraine: 2014/15
- Danish Champion: 2017/18
- Danish Cup Winner: 2018/19
- Danish Cup Winner: 2019/20
- Ukrainian Premier League Footballer of the Month: August 2021
- The best young player of the Ukrainian Premier League season 2016/17