Cluster: Stem cell technology

Cluster: Stem cell technology

Technology used for isolating, generating, growing and controlling the differentiation of stem cells into specialized cells and the application of stem cell technology for medical and non-medical purposes such as producing meat through cellular agriculture.

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Edits on 17 Feb, 2020
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Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Feb, 2020
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Meredith Hanel edited on 14 Jan, 2020
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Non-profit organizations
  • Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine (OIRM)
  • Society for Hematology and Stem Cells (International Society for Experimental Hematology, ISEH)
Edits on 9 Jan, 2020
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Meredith Hanel edited on 9 Jan, 2020
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Bone and cartilage repair and wound care

Edits on 14 Nov, 2019
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Meredith Hanel edited on 14 Nov, 2019
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Edits on 30 Oct, 2019
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Meredith Hanel edited on 30 Oct, 2019
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  • EpiBone
Edits on 2 Oct, 2019
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Meredith Hanel edited on 2 Oct, 2019
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  • 3D cell culture, hyaluronic acid hydrogel scaffolds, injectable hydrogel
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  • Density gradient centrifugation. Separation of cells by density gradient requires knowledge of the density of the target cell type. A density gradient is established in a test tube and centrifuged cells accumulate at a position where density of cells matches the density of medium. Ficoll-paque, Percoll and RosetteSep are used as media for stem cell separation by density gradient.
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Cell delivery
Edits on 12 Sep, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 12 Sep, 2019
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  • Ziopharm Oncology
Edits on 10 Sep, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 10 Sep, 2019
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  • 3D cell culture, hyaluronic acid hydrogel scaffolds
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  • Hyaluronic acid hydrogel scaffolds
Edits on 15 May, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 15 May, 2019
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  • Human pluripotent founder cells (hPFCs) play a role in the generation of human iPS cells by initiating and establishing pluripotency in culture
Edits on 15 Mar, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 15 Mar, 2019
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Immunotherapy with engineered cells

Cell therapies being used or in development for treating cancer or autoimmune diseases use T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) respectively engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CAR-T and TCR-T are engineered T cells and CAR-Treg and TCR-Treg therapies are engineered Tregs. FDA-approved CAR-T products are generated from harvesting autologous T cells from patients, followed by gene editing and infusion back into the patients. Allogeneic or universal cell therapy products, also called off-the-shelf cell therapy products would allow a broader implementation of these cell therapies. One method being researched is to derive natural killer (NK) cells from iPSCs and engineer iPSC-derived NK cells to target and kill cancer cell similarly to CAR-T cells.

Platelets carrying immunotherapy agents such as antibodies against immune checkpoint protein PD-1 have been tethered to hematopoietic stem cells to bring this immunotherapy into the bone marrow where it is needed to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The technology has been developed in the lab of Zhen Gu, Founder of Zencapsule and Professor of bioengineering at UCLA Samueli School of Engineering.

Companies developing cell therapies

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Immunotherapy

Cell therapies being used or in development for treating cancer or autoimmune diseases use T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) respectively engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CAR-T and TCR-T are engineered T cells and CAR-Treg and TCR-Treg therapies are engineered Tregs. FDA-approved CAR-T products are generated from harvesting autologous T cells from patients, followed by gene editing and infusion back into the patients. Allogeneic or universal cell therapy products, also called off-the-shelf cell therapy products would allow a broader implementation of these cell therapies. One method being researched is to derive natural killer (NK) cells from iPSCs and engineer iPSC-derived NK cells to target and kill cancer cell similarly to CAR-T cells.

Platelets carrying immunotherapy agents such as antibodies against immune checkpoint protein PD-1 have been tethered to hematopoietic stem cells to bring this immunotherapy into the bone marrow where it is needed to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The technology has been developed in the lab of Zhen Gu, Founder of Zencapsule and Professor of bioengineering at UCLA Samueli School of Engineering.

Edits on 4 Mar, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Mar, 2019
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  • MicrofluidicsMicrofluidics approaches can separate cells using field flow fractionation (FFF)​, Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and DEP-FFF
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  • PCRPCR
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Mar, 2019
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Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Mar, 2019
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  • Biopsy and histology
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  • Direct Labeling. A labeling agent is introduced into the cells, which is incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. RadionucleotidesRadionuclides are used for direct labeling but allow only short-term monitoring because radiodecay and diffusion of signal though cell division and dispersion. Other direct labelling materials include nanoparticles or quantum dots. Depending on the radiotracer, imaging can be performed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can track cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO).
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  • Pre-plating makes use of the phenomenon that stem cells tend to adhere to culture plates and dishes more than the rest of the cells in a population. Pre-plating has been shown to enrich for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow or human adipose-derived stem cells from lipoaspirate from liposuction procedure.

  • Density gradient centrifugation. Separation of cells by density gradient requires knowledge of the density of the target cell type. A density gradient is established in a test tube and centrifuged cells accumulate at a position where density of cells matches the density of medium. Ficoll-paque, Percoll and RosetteSep are used as media for stem cell separation by density gradient.

  • Magnet-activated cell sorting (MACS)
  • Pre-plating makes use of the phenomenon that stem cells tend to adhere to culture plates and dishes more than the rest of the cells in a population. Pre-plating has been shown to enrich for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow or human adipose-derived stem cells from lipoaspirate from liposuction procedure.
  • Conditioned expansion media
  • Density gradient centrifugation
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Mar, 2019
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  • direct labeling
  • indirect labeling
  • MRI
  • nanoparticles

  • Direct Labeling. A labeling agent is introduced into the cells, which is incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Radionucleotides are used for direct labeling but allow only short-term monitoring because radiodecay and diffusion of signal though cell division and dispersion. Other direct labelling materials include nanoparticles or quantum dots. Depending on the radiotracer, imaging can be performed using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can track cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO).

  • Indirect Labeling. Several reporter gene strategies have been used in pre-clinical stem cell transplant studies to study the long-term fate of transplanted cells. A reporter gene may be introduced into cells prior to transplantation that expresses fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein or bioluminescence. The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) system phosphorylates an exogenously administered substrate. PET imaging can be used to detect a dopamine 2-like receptor reporter gene which codes for a cell membrane protein that binds an exogenously administered probe. Another reporter gene system uses a thyroid transmembrane protein, sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) which transports iodine into cells in exchange for sodium, which can be imaged with PET or SPECT with radioactive iodine or Technetium Tc-99m pertechnetate. MRI detected reporter genes are generally iron homeostasis proteins, reporter enzymes and reporter genes which generate chemical exchange saturation transfer. Reporter gene systems are not used in humans due to the potential for adverse effects of integration of foreign DNA into human cells. Safe methods for long-term monitoring of transplanted cells in human patients are needed.
Edits on 28 Feb, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 28 Feb, 2019
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Cell therapies being used or in development for treating cancer or autoimmune diseases use T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) respectively engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). CAR-T and TCR-T are engineered T cells and CAT-TregCAR-Treg and TCR-Treg therapies are engineered Tregs. FDA-approved CAR-T products are generated from harvesting autologous T cells from patients, followed by gene editing and infusion back into the patients. Allogeneic or universal cell therapy products, also called off-the-shelf cell therapy products would allow a broader implementation of these cell therapies. One method being researched is to derive natural killer (NK) cells from iPSCs and engineer iPSC-derived NK cells to target and kill cancer cell similarly to CAR-T cells.

Edits on 26 Feb, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 26 Feb, 2019
Edits made to:
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Cancer

  • Glycostem
  • ZenCapsule, focused on developing delivery strategies for cancer immunotherapy
Immunotherapy

Cell therapies being used or in development for treating cancer or autoimmune diseases use T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) respectively. CAR-T and TCR-T are engineered T cells and CAT-Treg and TCR-Treg therapies are engineered Tregs. FDA-approved CAR-T products are generated from harvesting autologous T cells from patients, followed by gene editing and infusion back into the patients. Allogeneic or universal cell therapy products, also called off-the-shelf cell therapy products would allow a broader implementation of these cell therapies. One method being researched is to derive natural killer (NK) cells from iPSCs and engineer iPSC-derived NK cells to target and kill cancer cell similarly to CAR-T cells.

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Cancer

  • Glycostem
  • ZenCapsule, focused on developing delivery strategies for cancer immunotherapy
Edits on 22 Feb, 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 22 Feb, 2019
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  • CRISPR
  • CRISPR/Cas tools in live cell imaging include dCas9-GFP , CRISPR/MB (dCas9 based) , CLING (dCas9 based) , Cas13a fused with GFP for tracking RNA , CRISPR/Cas9 insertion of MS2 casette for RNA tracking.
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 22 Feb, 2019
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Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 22 Feb, 2019
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Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 22 Feb, 2019
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  • Pre-plating
  • Pre-plating makes use of the phenomenon that stem cells tend to adhere to culture plates and dishes more than the rest of the cells in a population. Pre-plating has been shown to enrich for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow or human adipose-derived stem cells from lipoaspirate from liposuction procedure.
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