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Cluster: Space

Cluster: Space

A cluster of topics related to the space industry.

Overview

Outer space, also known as space, is the expanse existing beyond Earth and other celestial bodies. Space is a hard vacuum containing various particles of low density, primarily consisting of plasma of hydrogen and helium. Other things existing in space are:

  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Neutrinos
  • Cosmic rays
  • Magnetic fields
  • Dust

The average temperature of space is extremely cold and unfit for human survival, and is a result of background radiation caused by the 'Big Bang.' Space at baseline sits at 2.7 kelvins, or −270.45 °C; −454.81 °F.

Neil Armstrong on the moon (1969)

Human exploration of space began in the 20th century, after the invention of high-altitude balloon flight. Later, crewed rocket flights were launched and the first successful crewed space mission took place in 1961. The mission was completed by a Soviet Union astronaut Yuri Gagarin. In 1969, Neil Armstrong was the first person to set foot on the moon, during NASA's Apollo 11 mission. Due to the high costs of human space travel, human space exploration has been limited to low Earth orbit and the moon; however, uncrewed spacecraft have landed on all known planets in the solar system.

Space technologies

Various technologies and sub-industries exist in space or are being developed by a multitude of companies to further contribute to space exploration. Some of these technologies and sub-industries are:

  • Spacecraft propulsion
  • Launchers
  • Cislunar
  • Satelite control
  • Weather tracking
  • Connectivity
  • Satellite imagery
  • Space vehicles
Spacecraft propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is a common component of all space-related travel, not just for human crews but also for satellites, rovers, and crewless spacecraft. There are two types of propulsion: spacecraft propulsion, which broadly refers to any acceleration of satellites and spacecraft; and in-space propulsion, which relates exclusively to propulsion systems that can operate within a hard vacuum and should not be confused with space launch or atmospheric entry.

Launchers

Launchers, also known as launch vehicles or carrier rockets, are rocket-propelled vehicles used to carry payloads from the surface of Earth into orbit or outer space. A launcher is actually a full launch system comprised of various parts, including:

  • Launch vehicles
  • Launch pads
  • Vehicle assembly and fueling
  • Range safety
  • Other infrastructure components

Cislunar

Cislunar travel and exploration references travel or explorations occurring in the spaces between Earth and the moon. Cislunar travel is becoming more popularized by the private and public sectors due to the rising demand to commercialize space travel. The commercialization of space travel is aimed at making low-orbit space a premier destination for vacationing, cargo transport, and expansion in space-capable technologies.

Satellite control and data ingestion

Satellite control and data ingestion is a function of AWS Ground Control, an arm of Amazon that allows satellite communication, control, and collection of satellite data from a fully staffed station on Earth. The service is provided to allow companies to scale operations without having to manually manage systems themselves.

Weather tracking

Weather tracking is the action of predicting weather based on various technologies like satellites, radiosondes, weather radar, and other ground-based technology. Satellite weather tracking is based in space and provides weather reporting services, like the National Weather Service (NWS), with a global picture of potential incoming weather patterns. The ground-based methods provide NWS with more localized weather information.

Space communications

Space communications is made up of six different parts:

  • Ground networks
  • Space relays
  • Bandwidth
  • Data rates
  • Latency
  • Interference

At the core of space communications, a transmitter and receiver are needed to successfully communicate. Transmitters encode messages onto electromagnetic waves through modulation. The electromagnetic waves travel through space to the receiver where the message is then demodulated to decode the sender's message.

The concept is similar to wireless internet, in which the router will send information from the internet and transmit the message on the user's computer, providing the data the user was looking for. Space communications are performed on a maximized scale, in comparison.

Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery, also known as spaceborne photography, Earth observation, and satellite photography, is images of Earth collected by imaging satellites. Imaging satellites are often operated by government entities and private businesses around the world for the purpose of resale to governments or other private businesses, like Apple Maps or Google Maps.

Space vehicles (habitats)

Space vehicles with habitats provide living spaces for manned space crafts. Habitats include sleeping quarters, bathrooms, and other living comforts. Space habitats are also being built to have humans inhabit outer space. Space settlements would have more advanced living spaces than space stations or spacecraft as they are intended for more permanent living scenarios.

Space vehicles (transportation)

Space vehicles for transportation can include ships transporting humans or payloads. Payloads are often times shipped into space in unmanned spacecraft. Other space vehicles transport humans to various locations like the international space station, or to the moon for lunar exploration.

Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous space companies

Timeline

People

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Documentaries, videos and podcasts

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News

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Antaisolar
June 17, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Antaisolar, el proveedor líder de toda la cadena de la industria en sistemas de montaje fotovoltaicos, celebró su 15o aniversario con el...
Antaisolar
June 15, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- A Antaisolar, fornecedora líder de toda a cadeia no setor no sistema de montagem fotovoltaica, comemorou seu 15o aniversário lançando seu mais...
Antaisolar
June 15, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Společnost Antaisolar, přední dodavatel fotovoltaických montážních systémů, při příležitosti oslav 15. výročí svého založení na veletrhu SNEC...
Antaisolar
June 7, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Antaisolar, the leading supplier of the whole industry chain in PV mounting system, celebrated its 15th anniversary by launching its latest...
Aleeya Mayo
June 5, 2021
Business Insider
Training regimens, artificial gravity, and lots of research are helping ensure the safety of everyday citizens in the next era of travel.
June 1, 2021
Moneycontrol
For too long we've allowed predatory institutions and environments to erode our mental health. If we don't protect ourselves, nobody will.
May 30, 2021
Awani Review
"Certified food fanatic. Extreme internet guru. Gamer. Evil beeraholic. Zombie ninja. Problem solver. Unapologetic alcohol lover."
Associated Press
May 25, 2021
Fox News
As more companies start selling tickets to space, a question looms: Who gets to call themselves an astronaut?
By MARCIA DUNN
May 25, 2021
AP NEWS
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) -- As more companies start selling tickets to space, a question looms: Who gets to call themselves an astronaut?It's already a complicated issue and about to get more so as the wealthy snap up spacecraft seats and even entire flights for themselves and their entourages.
Marcia Dunn
May 25, 2021
phys.org
As more companies start selling tickets to space, a question looms: Who gets to call themselves an astronaut?
MARCIA DUNN AP Aerospace Writer
May 25, 2021
ABC News
As more companies start selling tickets to space, a question looms: Who gets to call themselves an astronaut
MARCIA DUNN
May 25, 2021
news.yahoo.com
NASA's new boss Bill Nelson doesn't consider himself an astronaut even though he spent six days orbiting Earth in 1986 aboard space shuttle Columbia -- as a...
By MARCIA DUNN, AP Aerospace Writer
May 25, 2021
Chron
CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) -- As more companies start selling tickets to space, a...
Space Tailor
May 24, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Der Digitaldruckmarkt hatte in letzter Zeit aufgrund des wirtschaftlichen Abschwungs und der steigenden Inflation zu kämpfen. So versuchen...
Science X staff
May 18, 2021
phys.org
Hundreds of satellite images spanning over 25 years have been compiled to show the evolution of Greece's ever-changing coastlines.
Timiebi Aganaba
May 17, 2021
phys.org
On May 8, 2021, a piece of space junk from a Chinese rocket fell uncontrolled back to Earth and landed in the Indian Ocean near the Maldives. A year ago, in May 2020, another Chinese rocket met the same fate when it plummeted out of control into the waters off the West African coast. No one knew when or where either of these pieces of space junk were going to hit, so it was a relief when neither crashed on land or injured anyone.
May 11, 2021
mint
Regulatory scrutiny threatens to cool the SPAC market. By its very nature, the new space economy depends on this speculative financial ecosystem.
Raytheon Technologies
May 6, 2021
www.prnewswire.com:443
/PRNewswire/ -- Raytheon Intelligence & Space, a Raytheon Technologies (NYSE: RTX) business, will provide signals intelligence field services for the U.S. Air...
David Crookes
May 6, 2021
livescience.com
Did an unidentified flying object really crash land at a New Mexico ranch in 1947, only to be hushed up by the government?
Natasha Hinde
May 4, 2021
HuffPost UK
You can sign up to Breathing Space, a scheme to get help (and respite from creditors) while you sort your finances out.
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References

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