Cluster: Brain-computer interface

Cluster: Brain-computer interface

A collection of topics, research organizations, companies and technologies related to brain-computer interface (BCI) systems, also called brain-machine interface (BMI). These devices translate neuronal information into commands that can control software or hardware like computers or robotic devices.

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Edits on 28 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 28 Jun, 2020
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  • Wireless optogenetic nanoscale device
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 28 Jun, 2020
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Optogenetics

Optogenetics is a pre-clinical neuroscience research tool that has been suggested as an approach for neuroprosthetics and treatment of brain disorders. Optogenetics can be used for real-time control of genetically engineered brain neurons. Photosensitive proteins open and close membrane channels via light-inducible activation or suppression.

Optogenetics previously utilized optical fibers inserted into the skull, but wireless optogenetics technologies are being developed. . Optogenetic approaches could potentially use red or near infrared light, which has high tissue penetration, delivered by light emitting diodes (LED).

  • RetroSense Therapeutics (aquired by Allergan in 2016) was sponsored by Retina Foundation of the Southwest to perform a clinical trail on human patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Channelrhodopsin-2 was delivered to retina cells in an AAV vector.
  • Wireless optogenetic nanoscale device
  • Deep brain electrical stimulation for Parkinson's disease (Circuit Therapeutics)

...
Retinal prostheses
  • Argus II (Second Sight)
  • IRIS 2 (Pixium)
  • Alpha-AMS (Retina Implant)
Edits on 24 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 24 Jun, 2020
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Timeline

June 19, 2019

Non-invasive BCI for a mind-controlled robotic arm

Noninvasive neuroimaging enhances continuous neural tracking for robotic device control

Edelman, B. J., Meng, J., Suma, D., Zurn, C., Nagarajan, E., Baxter, B. S., C.C. Cline and He, B.

Carnegi Mellon University, University of Minnesota

June 24, 2017

Startup Neurable Unveils the World's First Brain-Controlled VR Game

Neurable's brain-computer interfaces enable hands-free control in virtual reality

July 24, 2006

A microelectrode array implanted into the primary motor cortex of a person with tetraplegia was used in a BCI system enabling the operation of e-mail, television, prosthetic hand and a robotic arm.

June 24, 1988

Farwell and Donchin demonstrated use of the P300 event-related potential to allow normal volunteers to spell words on a computer screen.

June 24, 1973

Dr. Jacques J. Vidal professor at University of California Los Angeles posed the question of whether observable brain signals could be carriers of information in person-computer communication or for controlling devices.

February 28, 1969

Signals from single cortical neurons demonstrated to control a meter needle

Operant Conditioning of Cortical Unit Activity

E.E. Fetz. Science 1969 Feb 28;163(3870):955-8.

June 24, 1929

Scalp EEG first described by Hans Berger
Edits on 17 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Jun, 2020
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A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provides feedback to the user, is processed in real time and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural CNS output and changes the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation and, assistive device technology, cognitive enhancement and increasing speed of human to computer communication. TheyBCIs are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Jun, 2020
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  • Cadwell Industries, Inc, neurophysiology devices
  • PlatoScience
  • Neurosphere
  • RxFunction
  • ANT Neuro
  • Neurable
  • PlatoScience, tDCS for boosting cognition
  • Neurosphere, neurofeedback enhanced meditation for enhanced well-being and productivity
  • RxFunction, leg sensory neuroprosthesis for neuropathy and balance problems
  • ANT Neuro, recording and analysis for EEG, EMG, MRI, TMS and MEG technology
  • Neurable, neurotechnology hardwared and software, EEG-based, interpretation of human intent, control of devices, VR games
Meredith Hanel"Couldn't find any BCI related products from Integra. I don't think brain atlases, while they may be referenced by BCI researchers, are central enough to be included in this cluster."
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
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Atlases
  • Allen Brain Atlas
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
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  • BIOS
  • NeuroPace
  • BIOS, BCI linked to AI to discover neural biomarkers and use AI-based neural treatments to treat chronic conditions
  • NeuroPace, implantable BCI to treat neurological disorders, responsive neurostimulator (RNS) system for epilepsy
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
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  • MindMaze SA, rehabilitation, virtual reality medical products to neural recovery
  • Neuroelectrics
  • Synchron, Inc.
  • NextMind
  • Neuroelectrics, EEG-based brain monitoring, brain stimulation, home therapy research
  • Synchron, Inc., implantable neural interface, assistive technology for paralysis and neurological conditions
  • NextMind, EEG-based BCI for mass market
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
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  • BrainCo, Inc.
  • MindMaze SA
  • BrainCo, Inc., cognitive training and prosthetics
  • MindMaze SA, virtual reality medical products to neural recovery
Edits on 12 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 12 Jun, 2020
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  • Neuroloom
  • Blackrock Microsystems LLC
  • Neuroloom, living electrodes made with nerve cells grown in microscopic needles interface with the retina to improve the ability to stimulate the retina and restore vision
  • Blackrock Microsystems LLC, provides tools for neural engineering and neuroprosthetics
  • Natus Medical, neuromonotoring products
  • Emotiv
  • NeuroSky
  • Emotiv, EEG brain monitoring
  • NeuroSky, EEG
  • Nihon Kohden, EEG
  • Compumedics Limited
  • Compumedics Limited, neurophysiology, cardiology, sleep disorders
  • g.tec medical engineering, invasive and non-invasive BCIs
  • Brain Products GmbH, neurophysiological hardware and software
  • Advanced Brain Monitoring, B-Alert wireless EEG
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 12 Jun, 2020
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  • Electromyography
...
  • BrainGate2, sucessor to BrainGate that is smaller than a contact lens and is surgically implanted into the ares of a disabled user’s motor cortex. Research on BrainGate2 is by the BrainGate Research TeamBrainGate Research Team which is funded from federal and philanthropic sources and separate from BrainGate the company.
  • Responsive neurostimulation (RNS), utilizes intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) to detect seizures and delivers stimulation to cortical and subcortical brain structures for seizure control
...
  • CTRL-labs
  • CTRL-labs, electromyography-based armband that reads nerve signal intentions to move
  • Neuralink
  • Kernel
  • Neuralink, developing implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) called the N1 sensor
  • Kernel, developing hardware and software for implantable devices for people with neurological and degenerative diseases like epilepsy, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Metabrain
  • Truust Neuroimaging
  • Paradromics
  • Metabrain, neural interfaces to speed up communication between humans and computers
  • Truust Neuroimaging, neuroimaging, data processing and analysis
  • Paradromics, developing implantable chip/neural interface for brains and computers to exchange data, communication device for people with paralysis
Edits on 12 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 12 Jun, 2020
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  • BrainGate Neural Interface, developed by Cyberkinetics with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University developed for people with paralysis. Intellectual property is owned by the BrainGate company.
  • BrainGate2, sucessor to BrainGate that is smaller than a contact lens and is surgically implanted into the ares of a disabled user’s motor cortex. Research on BrainGate2 is by the BrainGate Research Team which is funded from federal and philanthropic sources and separate from BrainGate the company.
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 12 Jun, 2020
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  • BrainGate Neural Interface
  • BrainGate2
  • BrainGate Neural Interface, developed by Cyberkinetics with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University developed for people with paralysis
  • BrainGate2, sucessor to BrainGate that is smaller than a contact lens and is surgically implanted into the ares of a disabled user’s motor cortex.
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 11 Jun, 2020
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  • Common Spatial Pattern (CSP).
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 11 Jun, 2020
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Implantable neural interface systemsmaterials and components
  • Chronically implanted neural electrodes
  • Neural electrodes both stimulate and measure nerve signals
  • Microelectrodes, microelectrode arrays (MEA)
  • Penetrating electrodes and non-penetrating electrodes
  • Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
  • Sharp glass electrodes and patch-clamp electrodes
  • Vertical nanowire electrode arrays (VNEAs)
...

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  • Cochlear implants
  • Deep brain stimulators
  • Visual cortical prosthesis, intended to restore visual function using electronic circuitry and electrical impulses
...
  • BNCI Horizon 2020 is a Coordination and Support Action funded within the European Commission’s Framework Programme 7 that aims to foster collaboration and communication among stakeholders such as research groups, companies, end users, policy makers and the general public.
  • BNCI Horizon 2020 is a Coordination and Support Action funded within the European Commission’s Framework Programme 7 that aims to foster collaboration and communication among stakeholders such as research groups, companies, end users, policy makers and the general public.

DARPA and the Brain Initiative (USA)

The initiative is supported by several federal agencies, technology firms, academic institutions and scientists.

  • Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX), neural-interface, sense of touch for amputees
  • Neural Engineering System Design (NESD), implantable neural interface, bio-electronics
  • Neuro Function, Activity, Structure and Technology (Neuro-FAST)
  • Next-Generation Nonsurgical Neurotechnology (N3), nonsurgical neural interfaces
  • Reliable Neural-Interface Technology (RE-NET)
  • Restoring Active Memory (RAM), implantable neural-interface memory prosthesis/memory aid
  • Restoring Active Memory – Replay (RAM Replay)
  • Revolutionizing Prosthetics program
  • Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS), closed-loop diagnostic and therapeutic systems for neuropsychological illnesses

Edits on 10 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 10 Jun, 2020
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Classification
Classification/ feature translation
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 10 Jun, 2020
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Brain activity measurementssignal acquisition
...
  • Neural dust: Electronic sensors sprinkledplaced into the cortex that are interrogated remotely using ultrasound and also powered by ultrasound
Intracortial brain computer interfaces (iBCIs)

iBCIs use microscale probes with 96 fine tipped microelectrodes in a 4x4 mm array that is inserted into the cortex. Sensors receive all-or-none output of single neurons, known as the action potential, as well as summed voltage fluctuations from small and large numbers of neurons, called field potentials.

  • wireless implants
  • transcutaneous systems
...
Intracortial brain computer interfaces (iBCIs)

iBCIs use microscale probes with 96 fine tipped microelectrodes in a 4x4 mm array that is inserted into the cortex. Sensors receive all-or-none output of single neurons, known as the action potential, as well as summed voltage fluctuations from small and large numbers of neurons, called field potentials.

  • wireless implants
  • transcutaneous systems

...

Once signals are acquired, a decoder is used to extract features of the neural signal.

Preprocessing

Preprocessing is needed to enhance signal-to-noise ratio and remove artifacts such as the part of EEG signals that come from muscular activity of the head and eye that are unrelated to the brain.

  • Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES)
Feature extraction

After brain signals are preprocessed they are fed into one or more feature extraction algorithms which extract features in the time domain and frequency domain that encode messages or commands.

...
  • Amplitude measures
  • Band power
  • Hjorth parameters
  • Autoregressive models
  • Wavelets
  • Spatial filters
  • Short Term Fourier Transform (STFT)
  • Auto Regressive Model (AR)
  • Wavelet Transform (WT)
  • Common Spatial Pattern (CSP).
Classification

In BCIs classification is the translation of features provided by the feature extractor to a category of brain patterns using classification algorithms.

  • Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)
  • Support Vector Machine (SVM)
  • Non-linear methods such as neural networks
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 10 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provideprovides feedback to the user, is processed in real time and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural CNS output and changes the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation and assistive device technology. They are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.

...
Implantable neural interface systems
  • Neural dust: Electronic sensors sprinkled into the cortex that are interrogated remotely using ultrasound and also powered by ultrasound
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 9 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
Article (+29/-29 characters)
Article

A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provide feedback to the user, is processed in real time and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural CNS output and changes the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation and assistive device technology. They are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 9 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
Article (+18/-18 characters)
Article

A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provide feedback to the user, is processed in real time and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural CNS output and changes the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation and assistive device technology. They are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) and Multiple SclerosisMultiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.

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