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Cluster: Brain-computer interface

Cluster: Brain-computer interface

A collection of topics, research organizations, companies and technologies related to brain-computer interface (BCI) systems, also called brain-machine interface (BMI). These devices translate neuronal information into commands that can control software or hardware like computers or robotic devices.

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Edits on 15 Sep, 2021
Amy Tomlinson Gayle
Amy Tomlinson Gayle edited on 15 Sep, 2021
Edits made to:
Timeline (+129/-305 characters)
Article (+117/-103 characters)
Article

A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provides feedback to the user, is processed in real time, and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement, or improve natural CNS output and changeschanging the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation, assistive device technology, cognitive enhancement, and increasing speed of human to computerhuman-to-computer communication. BCIs are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS), and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.

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IntracortialIntracortical brain computer interfaces (iBCIs)
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Within motor imagery, sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) have been used by patients with tetraplegia, spinal cord injury, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). In SMR imagination of kinesthetic movements of large body parts such as hands, feet and tongue can result in modulation of brain activity, such as event-related desynchronization (ERD) in mu (8-12 Hz) and beta rhythms (18-26 Hz) and relaxation results in event-related synchronization (ERS). EEG electrodes above the sensorimotor cortex record ERD and ERS modulations and can be used to control prosthetic devices and move the cursor on a computer. Training using the SMR paradigm can belast up to several weeks. SMR can distinguish motor activities corresponding to large body parts, but the decoded motor information does not include magnitude or direction kinematics parameters such as position, velocity, or acceleration.

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Imagined body kinematics (IBK), sometimes referred to as natural imaginary movement, is a paradigm independent from SMR because of the different training and analysis protocols. IBK originated formfrom invasive BCI technology, but is extracted from low-frequency SMR signals. Subjects are asked to imagine the continuous movement of only one body part in multi-dimensional space and signals are decoded in the time domain. IBK requires less training time compared with SMR.

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P300-based BCIs are communication tools wherein which thought is used to input texts or commands, control smart home controls, and for brain painting. The P300 is the one of the most studied event-related potentials (ERP). EEG signals of a specific event type are averaged to derive an ERP. In ERP P300 is a positive deflection with a time delay of about 250 ms to 750 ms after the onset of a rare and unexpected stimulus. P300 speller devices use a matrix of letters, numbers and symbols that flash in sequence and the subject is required to focus their attention on the intended character, which is determined by the speller based on its row and column. Visual P300 BCI can be used by most subjects easily with high accuracy but; disadvantages include fatigue from the high level of attention and visual focus issues and inability of use for people with visual impairment.

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SSVEP is also referred to as photic driving, since responses are generated in the visual cortex. SSVEP requires highly accurate eye control. In response to flickering stimuli, subjects shift their gaze and their attention. An EEG pattern is formed that is consistent with the flickering frequency of the stimulus on the central retina. Multiple flickering targets with distinct flickering frequencies are presented to the user and the intended target is determined by matching the pattern of EEG activity to the command associated with the particular frequency.

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Hybrid BCI platforms combine EEG with one or more physiological measures, such as heart rate by ECG, eye movement with electrooculography (EOG), or a hemodynamic signal recorded by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

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A covert attention paradigm has a subject focus on a centrally located fixation point while following another point such as a cursor without overt eye movement, whereas overt attention requires the subject to use overt eye movements. In both cases, EEG signals are typically recorded from the posterior cortex.

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For discrete movement intention, EEG signals are collected before the onset of movement, even in subjects that are not able to physically execute an actual movement.

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Under the somatosensory paradigm, vibrotactile sensors are placed on the body and stimulated at different frequencies, producing EEG signals. Somatosensory-based BCI systems have been used to assist patients with locked-in syndrome.

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After brain signals are preprocessed, they are fed into one or more feature extraction algorithms whichthat extract features in the time domain and frequency domain that encode messages or commands.

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In BCIs, classification is the translation of features provided by the feature extractor to a category of brain patterns using classification algorithms.

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Over the last five decades, progress in neural recording techniques has allowed the number of simultaneously recorded neurons to double approximately every 7seven years, mimicking Moore's law. Such exponential growth motivates us to ask how data analysis techniques are affected by progressively larger numbers of recorded neurons.

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Optogenetics is a pre-clinical neuroscience research tool that has been suggested as an approach for neuroprosthetics and the treatment of brain disorders. Optogenetics can be used for real-time control of genetically engineered brain neurons. Photosensitive proteins open and close membrane channels via light-inducible activation or suppression.

Optogenetics previously utilized optical fibers inserted into the skull, but wireless optogenetics technologies are being developed. . Optogeneticdeveloped.Optogenetic approaches could potentially use red or near infrared light, which has high tissue penetration, delivered by light emitting diodes (LED).

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  • Responsive neurostimulation (RNS), utilizes intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) to detect seizures and delivers stimulation to cortical and subcortical brain structures for seizure control
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Timeline

June 19, 2019

Non-invasive BCI enhances continuous neural tracking for a mind-controlled robotic arm.
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Edelman, B. J., Meng, J., Suma, D., Zurn, C., Nagarajan, E., Baxter, B. S., C.C. Cline and He, B.

Carnegi Mellon University, University of Minnesota

June 24, 2017

Startup Neurable Unveilsunveils the Worldworld's Firstfirst Brain-Controlledbrain-controlled VR Gamegame.

Neurable's brain-computer interfaces enable hands-free control in virtual reality

July 24, 2006

A microelectrode array implanted into the primary motor cortex of a person with tetraplegia wasis used in a BCI system, enabling the operation of e-mail, and television, with a prosthetic hand and a robotic arm.

June 24, 1988

Farwell and Donchin demonstrateddemonstrate the use of the P300 event-related potential to allow normal volunteers to spell words on a computer screen.

June 24, 1973

Dr. Jacques J. Vidal, professor at University of California Los Angeles, posedposes the question of whether observable brain signals could be carriers of information in person-computer communication or for controlling devices.

February 28, 1969

Signals from single cortical neurons demonstrated todemonstrate control of a meter needle.

June 24, 1929

Scalp EEG is first described by Hans Berger
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Aleksander Holm
Aleksander Holm edited on 15 Sep, 2021
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Article

Brain-computer interface companies

Edits on 15 Aug, 2021
Omar Olivares"Add podcast about Neuralink and BCI companies"
Omar Olivares edited on 15 Aug, 2021
Edits made to:
Documentaries, videos and podcasts (+1 rows) (+3 cells) (+80 characters)
Documentaries, videos and podcasts

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Neura Pod - Neuralink

Edits on 28 Jun, 2021
Omar Olivares"Add metrics for tracking advances"
Omar Olivares edited on 28 Jun, 2021
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Stevenson & Kording's Law

Over the last five decades, progress in neural recording techniques has allowed the number of simultaneously recorded neurons to double approximately every 7 years, mimicking Moore's law. Such exponential growth motivates us to ask how data analysis techniques are affected by progressively larger numbers of recorded neurons.

Number of simultaneously recorded neurons to double approximately every 7 years, mimicking Moore’s law.

Edits on 27 Jun, 2021
Omar Olivares"Add a documentary which showcase various BCI technologies and personal stories."
Omar Olivares edited on 27 Jun, 2021
Edits made to:
Documentaries, videos and podcasts (+1 rows) (+4 cells) (+77 characters)
Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

I Am Human (2019) - IMDb

March 3, 2020

Edits on 21 Feb, 2021
Alex K. Chen
Alex K. Chen edited on 21 Feb, 2021
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  • Brainmaster, neurofeedback
  • Neuroptimal, neurofeedback
Edits on 19 Jan, 2021
Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 19 Jan, 2021
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Clinical research

Clinical studies involving brain-computer interfaces

Edits on 28 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 28 Jun, 2020
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Article
  • Wireless optogenetic nanoscale device
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 28 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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Optogenetics

Optogenetics is a pre-clinical neuroscience research tool that has been suggested as an approach for neuroprosthetics and treatment of brain disorders. Optogenetics can be used for real-time control of genetically engineered brain neurons. Photosensitive proteins open and close membrane channels via light-inducible activation or suppression.

Optogenetics previously utilized optical fibers inserted into the skull, but wireless optogenetics technologies are being developed. . Optogenetic approaches could potentially use red or near infrared light, which has high tissue penetration, delivered by light emitting diodes (LED).

  • RetroSense Therapeutics (aquired by Allergan in 2016) was sponsored by Retina Foundation of the Southwest to perform a clinical trail on human patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Channelrhodopsin-2 was delivered to retina cells in an AAV vector.
  • Wireless optogenetic nanoscale device
  • Deep brain electrical stimulation for Parkinson's disease (Circuit Therapeutics)

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Retinal prostheses
Edits on 24 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 24 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
Timeline (+7 events) (+1194 characters)
Timeline

June 19, 2019

Non-invasive BCI for a mind-controlled robotic arm

Noninvasive neuroimaging enhances continuous neural tracking for robotic device control

Edelman, B. J., Meng, J., Suma, D., Zurn, C., Nagarajan, E., Baxter, B. S., C.C. Cline and He, B.

Carnegi Mellon University, University of Minnesota

June 24, 2017

Startup Neurable Unveils the World's First Brain-Controlled VR Game

Neurable's brain-computer interfaces enable hands-free control in virtual reality

July 24, 2006

A microelectrode array implanted into the primary motor cortex of a person with tetraplegia was used in a BCI system enabling the operation of e-mail, television, prosthetic hand and a robotic arm.

June 24, 1988

Farwell and Donchin demonstrated use of the P300 event-related potential to allow normal volunteers to spell words on a computer screen.

June 24, 1973

Dr. Jacques J. Vidal professor at University of California Los Angeles posed the question of whether observable brain signals could be carriers of information in person-computer communication or for controlling devices.

February 28, 1969

Signals from single cortical neurons demonstrated to control a meter needle

Operant Conditioning of Cortical Unit Activity

E.E. Fetz. Science 1969 Feb 28;163(3870):955-8.

June 24, 1929

Scalp EEG first described by Hans Berger
Edits on 22 Jun, 2020
Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 22 Jun, 2020
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  • BrainGate2, sucessor to BrainGate that is smaller than a contact lens and is surgically implanted into the ares of a disabled user’s motor cortexmotor cortex. Research on BrainGate2 is by the BrainGate Research Team which is funded from federal and philanthropic sources and separate from BrainGate the company.
Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 22 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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  • BrainGate Neural Interface, developed by Cyberkinetics with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown UniversityBrown University developed for people with paralysis. Intellectual property is owned by the BrainGate company.
Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 22 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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Edits on 17 Jun, 2020
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
Article (+84/-8 characters)
Article

A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provides feedback to the user, is processed in real time and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural CNS output and changes the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation and, assistive device technology, cognitive enhancement and increasing speed of human to computer communication. TheyBCIs are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 17 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
Article (+424/-50 characters)
Article
Meredith Hanel"Couldn't find any BCI related products from Integra. I don't think brain atlases, while they may be referenced by BCI researchers, are central enough to be included in this cluster."
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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Charlie Hilton
Charlie Hilton approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 16 Jun, 2020
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Article

For training BCI users, virtual reality is a method of providing feedback. In gaming for the purposes of entertainment, virtual reality headsetsvirtual reality headsets used for gaming could include EEG sensors to potentially allow games to respond differently to the user depending on their mood or how they respond to particular elements of the game.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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  • BIOS
  • NeuroPace
  • BIOS, BCI linked to AI to discover neural biomarkers and use AI-based neural treatments to treat chronic conditions
  • NeuroPace, implantable BCI to treat neurological disorders, responsive neurostimulator (RNS) system for epilepsy
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
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Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 16 Jun, 2020
Edits made to:
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  • BrainCo, Inc.
  • MindMaze SA
  • BrainCo, Inc., cognitive training and prosthetics
  • MindMaze SA, virtual reality medical products to neural recovery
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