A collection of topics, research organizations, companies and technologies related to brain-computer interface (BCI) systems, also called brain-machine interface (BMI). These devices translate neuronal information into commands that can control software or hardware like computers or robotic devices.
Optogenetics is a pre-clinical neuroscience research tool that has been suggested as an approach for neuroprosthetics and treatment of brain disorders. Optogenetics can be used for real-time control of genetically engineered brain neurons. Photosensitive proteins open and close membrane channels via light-inducible activation or suppression.
Optogenetics previously utilized optical fibers inserted into the skull, but wireless optogenetics technologies are being developed. . Optogenetic approaches could potentially use red or near infrared light, which has high tissue penetration, delivered by light emitting diodes (LED).
June 19, 2019
Noninvasive neuroimaging enhances continuous neural tracking for robotic device control
Edelman, B. J., Meng, J., Suma, D., Zurn, C., Nagarajan, E., Baxter, B. S., C.C. Cline and He, B.
Carnegi Mellon University, University of Minnesota
June 24, 2017
Neurable's brain-computer interfaces enable hands-free control in virtual reality
July 24, 2006
June 24, 1988
June 24, 1973
February 28, 1969
Operant Conditioning of Cortical Unit Activity
E.E. Fetz. Science 1969 Feb 28;163(3870):955-8.
June 24, 1929
A BCI relies on direct measures of brain activity, provides feedback to the user, is processed in real time and relies on intentional control. BCIs measure central nervous system (CNS) activity, converting it into artificial output in order to replace, restore, enhance, supplement or improve natural CNS output and changes the ongoing interactions between the CNS and the external and internal environment. BCI systems have applications in neurorehabilitation and, assistive device technology, cognitive enhancement and increasing speed of human to computer communication. TheyBCIs are used for communication or control of external prosthetic devices in people living with conditions such as spinal cord injury, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). BCIs can be used for functional electrical stimulation of muscles in a paralyzed person or of peripheral nerves to restore bladder function. BCIs can monitor brain activity during prolonged demanding tasks and detect lapses of attention and alert the person. BCIs are used in research to study CNS function.
For training BCI users, virtual reality is a method of providing feedback. In gaming for the purposes of entertainment, virtual reality headsetsvirtual reality headsets used for gaming could include EEG sensors to potentially allow games to respond differently to the user depending on their mood or how they respond to particular elements of the game.