Golden
Cluster: Artificial intelligence

Cluster: Artificial intelligence

A cluster of topics related to artificial intelligence.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines. This is a cluster of topics in AI or related to AI.

Types of AI

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is classified into types based on the degree to which an AI system can replicate or go beyond human capabilities. One classification system uses four types: reactive machines, limited memory machines, theory of mind and self-aware AI. Another classification divides AI into two divisions: Weak AI or Narrow AI and Strong AI or General AI or Artificial General Intelligence. Different branches of AI are referred to by the method used to achieve AI.

Main classifications

  • Weak or narrow AI or artificial narrow intelligence
  • Artificial superintelligence (ASI)
  • Reactive machines: These do not have past memory and cannot use past information for future actions
  • Limited memory machines: These can use past experiences to inform future decisions
  • Theory of Mind: In humans it is the ability to infer other people’s thoughts, desires and beliefs in others and to understand that they may be different from your own. Theory of mind level AI would be able to interact socially with people
  • Self-aware AI (hypothetical, not realized)

Other classifications

  • Cognitive computing: A term favored by IBM for computing designed to augment human intelligence rather than replace it such as helping doctors diagnose disease, guiding financial managers in making recommendations and allowing lawyers to search caselaw more quickly.

Branches of AI

Machine learning

Machine learning is a technique for realizing AI and it is an application of AI where machines are given access to data from which they learn form themselves. 

Machine learning tools

Tools, algorithms, libraries and interfaces for machine learning

Neural networks

Artificial neural network (ANN) processing devices can be algorithms or actual hardware that are loosely modeled after the neuronal structure of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Neural networks are used in the branch of machine learning called deep learning. The following are types of neural networks used in machine learning as well as topics associated with neural networks.



Deep learning frameworks

A Deep Learning Framework is an interface, library or a tool which allows users to build deep learning models more easily and quickly, without getting into the details of underlying algorithms. Libraries are useful for individuals who want to implement Deep Learning techniques but don’t have robust fluency in back-propagation, linear algebra or computer math. These libraries provide pre-written code for functions and modules that can be reused for deep learning training for different purposes.

Reinforcement learning

Reinforcement learning is an area of machine learning focusing on how machines and software agents react in a specific context to maximize performance and achieve reward known as reinforcement signal. The following are algorithms, tools and research topics related to reinforcement learning.

Supervised learning

Supervised learning is a type of machine learning in which data is fully labelled and algorithms learn to approximate a mapping function well enough that they can accurately predict output variables given new input data. This section contains supervised learning techniques. For example, Gradient Descent is a technique to optimize neural networks in supervised machine learning. Gradient descent optimization algorithms are used to speed up the learning process of deep neural networks. Another example, Support Vector Machine (SVM), is a type of algorithm that is a discriminative classifier formally defined by a separating hyperplane used for regression and classification tasks.

Decision trees

A decision tree is a simple representation for classifying samples. Decision tree algorithms are used in supervised machine learning where data is continuously split according to a parameter.

Unsupervised learning

Unsupervised learning is a branch of machine learning that tries to make sense of data that has not been labeled, classified, or categorized by extracting features and patterns on its own. The following are methods used in unsupervised machine learning.

Clustering

In unsupervised machine learning, clustering is the process of grouping similar entities together in order to find similarities in the data points and group similar data points together. 

Ensemble learning

Ensemble methods are meta-algorithms that combine several machine learning techniques into one predictive model. The purpose is to decrease variance (bagging), bias (boosting), or improve predictions (stacking).

Dimensionality reduction

In machine learning classification problems when there are too many factors or variables, also called features. When most of the features are correlated or redundant, dimensionality reduction algorithms are used to reduce the number of random variables. Certain features are selected and others are extracted. 

Parameterized statistical models

Machine learning models are parameterized to tune their behavior for a given problem. Noise contrastive estimation (NCE) is an estimation principle for parameterized statistical models. NCE is a way of learning a data distribution by comparing it against a defined noise distribution. The technique is used to cast an unsupervised problem as a supervised logistic regression problem. NCE is often used to train neural language models in place of Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

  • Noise-contrastive estimation

Computer Vision

Computer vision is the ability of artificially intelligent systems to “see” like humans. In the computer vision field machines are developed that automate tasks that require visual cognition. Deep learning and artificial neural networks are used to develop computer vision. The following are topics related to computer vision as well as tools and libraries. Companies developing or selling computer vision products are under the Computer Vision subheading under the AI applications and companies section.

Natural language processing

Natural language processing is a branch of AI that helps computers understand, interpret and manipulate human language. The following are tools and topics related to NLP. NLP companies developing or selling NLP applications are found in the AI applications and companies section under Natural language processing.



Quantum Computing

Advances in deep learning are expected to increase understanding in quantum mechanics. It is thought that quantum computers will accelerate AI. Quantum computers have the potential to surpass conventional ones in machine learning tasks such as data pattern recognition. The following are topics, companies and technologies that link quantum computing and AI.

Semantic Computing

Semantic computing deals with the derivation, description, integration and use of semantics (meaning, context and intention) for resources including data, document, tool, device, process and people. Semantic computing includes analytics, semantics description languages, integration of data and services, interfaces and applications. In AI, semantic computing involves the creation of ontologies that are combined with machine learning to help computers create new knowledge. Semantic technology helps cognitive computing extract useful information from unstructured data in pattern recognition and natural-language processing.

IoT (Internet of Things)

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to objects that connect and transfer data via the internet and the sharing of information between devices. IoT based smart systems generate a large volume of data including sensor data valuable to researchers in healthcare, bioinformatics, information sciences, policy and decision making, government and enterprises. AI can be combined with machine learning for analysis of data and prediction.

Artificial life and evolutionary computation

While some lines of AI research aim to simulate the human brain. Artificial life or animate approach is concerned with the conception and construction of artificial animals as simulations or actual robots. It aims to explain how certain faculties of the human brain might be inherited from the simplest adaptive abilities of animals. Evolutionary computation is a generic optimization technique that draws inspiration from the theory of evolution by natural selection.



AI applications and companies

The following are companies using AI to develop products or producing AI software for various applications. AI programs designed for a specific applications are also listed.

Medical, veterinary and pharmaceutical

Chemical industry

  • Enzbond - prediction programs for enzyme development

Computer vision, image recognition and generation

Computer vision has applications in healthcare, security, manufacturing and transportation.

Natural language processing

Voice recognition

Chatbots

Education

Business

Game playing

Art and music creation

Agriculture

Autonomous navigation

Autonomous driving

Banking/Finance

Drone navigation/Military

Industry/Factory automation and monitoring

Fitness

Brain-computer interface

Cyber security/Law

Employee Behavior Analytics

Hotel Assistant

Sales/Marketing/Retail/Customer service

Trademark Analysis

Real-estate

Social Media/Human Interaction/Recruitment

Personal assistant

Selfie Apps

Data science

Robotics

AI software and API development

Other AI companies

Investment



Timeline

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Dragos Grozavu

Founder



Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date
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Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link
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Companies

Company
CEO
Location
Products/Services

Rufus Lidman

Stockholm, Sweden

Digital education platform

Altius

Jerett Gordon

San Antonio, US



ARICA

Barry N. Perkins

San Francisco, California, US



Sanjay Patil

Redwood City, California, US





Las Vegas, US

Direct Aviated Response (DAR) System

Cognitev

Moustafa Mahmoud

Dubai, UAE

Automated digital advertising

Destin AI

Nargiz Mammadova

Toronto, Canada

Destin AI Chatbot

Emergynt

Ori Lapidot

Austin, US

Digital risk analysis

Raja Sharif

London, England



FightCamp

Khalil Zahar

Los Angeles, US

At-home boxing

Jeff Orkin

Boston, US

Customized AI conversation bots

HeedX

Amine Ketz

Paris, France



HireSweet

Robin Choy

Paris, France

Automated job candidate search

Marcin Strzałkowski

San Francisco, US

Automated, customizable chatbots

jobox.ai



San Francisco, California, US



Jubiwee



Paris, France



Lily AI

Purva Gupta

Mountain View, US

App for fashion recommendations







Mahd

Mohamed Dardouri

Sousse, Tunisia



MDacne

Oded Harth

San Francisco, US

AI-enhanced acne treatment

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News

Title
Author
Date
Publisher
Description
March 20, 2020
The Economic Times
The RAISE 2020 Summit is expected to feature some of the most exciting global startups working in Artificial Intelligence related fields and is expected to have multiple events such as the AI Startup Pitchfest, AI Startup Theater and The AI Startup Awards.
March 5, 2020
WebWire
A free planning toolkit to help museums develop Artificial Intelligence (AI) projects has been launched by The Museums + AI Network - a group of senior museum professionals and academics in the UK and US that have come together to discuss how AI can fit within a museum context., , , , AI: A Museum Planning Toolkit is the result of their discussions, workshops and events, as well as a series of public events called Curator: Computer: Creator, that sought more diverse voices on how AI might...
Jim Malone
February 6, 2020
CIO
Tech Prognosis: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Back-Office Benefits
January 31, 2020
International Business Times UK
Artificial Intelligence may lead to false findings of alien life, a study reveals.
December 18, 2019
WebWire
Damart becomes the voice that is never cold. The innovative textiles specialist has teamed up with Google and Atos, global leader in digital transformation, to develop its first voice application. Accessible via Google Home connected speakers, and smartphones which are compatible with Google Assistant, it helps users select and buy their ideal Thermolactyl (Damart's thermal clothing brand), depending on the weather, their style, and their activity. It will also offer users the opportunity...
December 10, 2019
WebWire
, , , , • Early technology adopter consumers expect an Internet of Senses by 2030, enabling a new service economy based on digital sensory experiences, , • With the human brain as the user interface, consumers expect devices to respond to thoughts, creating a new interaction paradigm, , • Most consumers believe that Internet of Senses' services will make society more environmentally sustainable, , , , , , Consumers expect an array of beneficial services from connected technology interacting with our s...
Jim Salter
December 9, 2019
Ars Technica
If you want to get your own hands dirty with machine learning, start here.
December 4, 2019
WebWire
A new study released by LexisNexis® Risk Solutions found that the majority of the respondents (62%) work for insurance carriers that have already adopted artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) initiatives and that an overwhelming majority (75%) believe AI and ML can provide carriers with a competitive advantage through better decision-making. While carriers are generally positive about their use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML), implementation do...
Sravasti Datta
November 25, 2019
The Hindu
Jaspreet Bindra's book 'The Tech Whisperer' isn't just for technology enthusiasts
ANI
November 12, 2019
@bsindia
Read more about From self-drive cars to IoT, these next-wave techs will rule 2020s decade on Business Standard. New Delhi [India], Nov 12 (ANI): For the first time human life changed significantly in the 20th century after several centuries of incremental progress. After hundreds of years of social, economic and political change, technology was the harbinger
Agencies
November 1, 2019
@bsindia
Read more about India, Germany ink 20 agreements in AI, green urban mobility & agriculture on Business Standard. While strengthening Cooperation in the Field of Artificial Intelligence and Digital Transformation formed a major part of the joint statement, there was also a large section on combating terrorism
September 26, 2019
WebWire
, , , , • Both companies will co-invest up to 250 k€ for each startup , , , , , , , , , , • The main interest areas are Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Internet of Things, Video, Cybersecurity, Edge Computing among others. , , , , , , Wayra, the open innovation hub network by Telefónica, and TheVentureCity, the global accelerator of technological ecosystems with headquarters in Madrid and Miami, have signed a global deal to jointly invest in Latin-American startups focused on the Internet o...
Gregory Barber
September 16, 2019
Wired
Machine-learning systems are black boxes even to the researchers that build them. That makes it hard for others to assess the results.
August 28, 2019
WebWire
Inspired by blind entrepreneur, Matthew Shifrin, the new building instructions will help children with vision impairment build and learn through play using LEGO bricks What started as a kind gesture between friends living just outside Boston, US, is today being rolled out as a global pilot by the LEGO Group - using AI technology the initiative aims to make the LEGO play experience more accessible for those with vision impairment. We call it: LEGO® Audio & Braille Building Instructions....
Sabine Hossenfelder
Invalid Date
Nautilus
Artificial Intelligence, it seems, is now everywhere. Text translation, speech recognition, book recommendations, even your spam filter...
June 3, 2019
WebWire
Ventripoint Diagnostics Ltd. ("Ventripoint" or the "Company", TSXV:VPT, OTCQB:VPTDF) is pleased to announce that they have achieved a major milestone by successfully passing the EMC/Safety Testing for the VMS+ 3.0, which is required for regulatory premarket approvals in Canada, United States and Europe. , , We are very proud of this latest achievement, which was the final piece of testing required for our submissions to the FDA, Health Canada and CE. We anticipate submitting for reg...
SymphonyRM
May 16, 2019
www.prnewswire.com:443
PALO ALTO, Calif., May 16, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- SymphonyRM, Healthcare's Next Best Action (NBA) company, today announced that it has doubled its revenue and...
MarketsandMarkets
May 14, 2019
www.prnewswire.com:443
CHICAGO, May 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- According to the new market research report "Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity Market by Offering (Hardware,...
Institute of Educational Science, Chinese Academy of Management Science
May 14, 2019
www.prnewswire.com:443
BEIJING, May 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Salute the times and strive for the future! On April 27, 2019, the Second Summit of Leaders of Private Education in...
May 9, 2019
WebWire
From the 16th to 18th May, Paris is set to be the centre of the tech world with over one hundred thousand people attending VivaTech. As a company that's been innovating for over a century, L'Oréal will be there too at Hall of Tech - F22, with a stunning stand and array of exciting new innovations. Our theme this year is "Limitless Beauty", which will be used to showcase our vision of the future of beauty, through innovations powered by voice, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Augmented Real...
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