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CRISPR

CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes.

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Jennifer DoudnaJennifer Doudna

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Will You Eat CRISPR Produce? - NEO.LIFE - Medium

Shelby Pope

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10 High Potential CRISPR Startups to Watch Out In 2018

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Emily Mullin

U.S. Doctors Plan to Treat Cancer Patients Using CRISPR



The Verge

Gene-editing tool CRISPR can now manipulate more types of genetic material

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CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes.

People

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Role
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Jennifer Doudna

Researcher



Further reading

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Title
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The Verge

Gene-editing tool CRISPR can now manipulate more types of genetic material

Article

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Tianchang He
Tianchang He edited on 25 May 2018 10:54 pm
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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, particularly viral DNA or RNARNA, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes. 

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Tianchang He
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The CRISPR response evolved to defend bacteria and archaea against infection with bacteriophages, and CRISPR genes are present in the majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes. CRISPR systems share several common features: first, a mechanism for recognition and processing of foreign nucleic acids into short 'spacer' sequences; second, a mechanism for incorporation of these spacers into clusters (CRISPRs) on the bacterial genome, which are regularly interspersed by a short, repeated palindromic DNA sequence; third, a mechanism for transcribing and processing this CRISPR sequence into RNA molecules (known as CRISPR RNAs, or crRNAs) comprising the spacer sequence and a hairpin formed by the palindromic repeat; and finally, recognition and cleavage of DNA or RNA matching the spacer sequence by a protein-RNA complex consisting of both the crRNA and a nuclease. To avoid self-cleavage of the CRISPR locus in the microbe's genome, spacer sequences must occur next to a short DNA sequence, called the Protospacer-Adjacent Motif (PAM), which is not present in the CRISPR locus of the genome. This PAM sequence must be present in order for a spacer to be incorporated into the CRISPR locus, and must be present next to DNA/RNA matching the spacer in order for the crRNA/nuclease complex to recognize and cleave it. The genes and proteins involved with spacer acquisition, crRNA processing, and crRNA-guided cleavage are named CRISPR-Associated (Cas). In type II CRISPR systems, a single gene called Cas9Cas9 produces a DNA endonuclease which binds to the crRNA (which, when fused with a trans-activating crRNA, is called a short guide RNA or sgRNA), and can bind and introduce DNA double strand breaks at sequences matching the crRNA's spacer region. The Cas9/sgRNA complex can be programmed to cleave any PAM-adjacent DNA sequence, simply by changing the the spacer (also known as the guide) sequence. Cas nucleases from type V CRISPR systems (such as Cpf1/Cas12A) have also been adapted to programmably cleave DNA, while nucleases from type VI CRISPR systems (such as C2c2/Cas13A) have been adapted to programmably cleave RNA.

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Isaac Larkin"connected citations to the text that references them"
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The CRISPR response evolved to defend bacteria and archaea against infection with bacteriophages , and CRISPR genes are present in the majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes. CRISPR systems share several common features: first, a mechanism for recognition and processing of foreign nucleic acids into short 'spacer' sequences; second, a mechanism for incorporation of these spacers into clusters (CRISPRs) on the bacterial genome, which are regularly interspersed by a short, repeated palindromic DNA sequence; third, a mechanism for transcribing and processing this CRISPR sequence into RNA molecules (known as CRISPR RNAs, or crRNAs) comprising the spacer sequence and a hairpin formed by the palindromic repeat; and finally, recognition and cleavage of DNA or RNA matching the spacer sequence by a protein-RNA complex consisting of both the crRNA and a nuclease. To avoid self-cleavage of the CRISPR locus in the microbe's genome, spacer sequences must occur next to a short DNA sequence, called the Protospacer-Adjacent Motif (PAM), which is not present in the CRISPR locus of the genome. This PAM sequence must be present in order for a spacer to be incorporated into the CRISPR locus, and must be present next to DNA/RNA matching the spacer in order for the crRNA/nuclease complex to recognize and cleave it. The genes and proteins involved with spacer acquisition, crRNA processing, and crRNA-guided cleavage are named CRISPR-Associated (Cas). In type II CRISPR systems, a single gene called Cas9 produces a DNA endonuclease which binds to the crRNA (which, when fused with a trans-activating crRNA, is called a short guide RNA or sgRNA), and can bind and introduce DNA double strand breaks at sequences matching the crRNA's spacer region. The Cas9/sgRNA complex can be programmed to cleave any PAM-adjacent DNA sequence, simply by changing the the spacer (also known as the guide) sequence. Cas nucleases from type V CRISPR systems (such as Cpf1/Cas12A) have also been adapted to programmably cleave DNA, while nucleases from type VI CRISPR systems (such as C2c2/Cas13A) have been adapted to programmably cleave RNA.

Isaac Larkin"Added more information about natural CRISPR systems, and about some applications. Corrected/removed some typographical and factual errors, as well as a sentence at the end about the necessity for regulations which seemed to editorialize."
Isaac Larkin edited on 4 May 2018 7:27 pm
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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such asparticularly viral DNA and bacterialor plasmidsRNA, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes. 

...

The CRISPR response evolved within Bacteria and Archaea as a defense against attacks by one of the most abundant life forms on the planet — bacteriophages , and are present in the majority of Bacterial and Archaeal genomes. Several defense responses evolved over time as a defense to attacks from bacteriophages such as blocking absorption of bacteriophage DNA, prevention of bacteriophage DNA injection, restriction of foreign DNA, and abortive strategies. The CRISPR and cas system works with DNA repair and recombination genes as a part of an abortive strategy; where CRISPR is responsible for targeting specific foreign DNA elements and cas genes/enzymes are responsible for providing resistance and adaptive responses to those targeted elements.

The CRISPR response evolved to defend bacteria and archaea against infection with bacteriophages , and CRISPR genes are present in the majority of bacterial and archaeal genomes. CRISPR systems share several common features: first, a mechanism for recognition and processing of foreign nucleic acids into short 'spacer' sequences; second, a mechanism for incorporation of these spacers into clusters (CRISPRs) on the bacterial genome, which are regularly interspersed by a short, repeated palindromic DNA sequence; third, a mechanism for transcribing and processing this CRISPR sequence into RNA molecules (known as CRISPR RNAs, or crRNAs) comprising the spacer sequence and a hairpin formed by the palindromic repeat; and finally, recognition and cleavage of DNA or RNA matching the spacer sequence by a protein-RNA complex consisting of both the crRNA and a nuclease. To avoid self-cleavage of the CRISPR locus in the microbe's genome, spacer sequences must occur next to a short DNA sequence, called the Protospacer-Adjacent Motif (PAM), which is not present in the CRISPR locus of the genome. This PAM sequence must be present in order for a spacer to be incorporated into the CRISPR locus, and must be present next to DNA/RNA matching the spacer in order for the crRNA/nuclease complex to recognize and cleave it. The genes and proteins involved with spacer acquisition, crRNA processing, and crRNA-guided cleavage are named CRISPR-Associated (Cas). In type II CRISPR systems, a single gene called Cas9 produces a DNA endonuclease which binds to the crRNA (which, when fused with a trans-activating crRNA, is called a short guide RNA or sgRNA), and can bind and introduce DNA double strand breaks at sequences matching the crRNA's spacer region. The Cas9/sgRNA complex can be programmed to cleave any PAM-adjacent DNA sequence, simply by changing the the spacer (also known as the guide) sequence. Cas nucleases from type V CRISPR systems (such as Cpf1/Cas12A) have also been adapted to programmably cleave DNA, while nucleases from type VI CRISPR systems (such as C2c2/Cas13A) have been adapted to programmably cleave RNA.

...

CRISPR has been rapidly adopted in biotechnology research as it offers rapid genetic editing at a fraction of the time and cost of previous approaches. Whereas previous gene-editing approaches required protein engineering for each edit, CRISPR can be re-directed to a new site in the genome through supply of a new gRNA (guide RNA) complementary to the site of interest. While the first CRISPR variants based around native Cas9 suffered from high off-target mutagenesis rates, protein engineering and the discovery of additional CRISPR variations in bacterial species has led to a rapid proliferation of Cas9-related endonucleases, each with their own benefits and trade-offs. This family of tools is generally referred to as CRISPR. It comprises CRISPR-A/I acting as artificial transcription factors, high-fidelity CRISPR editing tools, drug-inducible endonucleases, and molecular imaging tools for DNA binding interactions. CRISPR systems are undergoing rapid development worldwide with application to diverse areas such as therapeutics, research tools, and ecological engineering. These developments have highlighted the potential safety issues inherent in a powerful genome editing technology, including their potential misuse and remediation thereof. Regulatory bodies have yet to issue specific guidelines for the safe use of CRISPR in therapeutics or any other systems, although such regulation will eventually prove necessary.

CRISPR has been rapidly adopted in biotechnology research as it offers rapid genetic editing at a fraction of the time and cost of previous approaches. Whereas previous gene-editing approaches required protein engineering for each edit, CRISPR can be re-directed to a new site in the genome through supply of a new sgRNA/crRNA complementary to the site of interest. While the first CRISPR variants based around native Cas9 suffered from high off-target mutagenesis rates, protein engineering and the discovery of additional CRISPR variations in bacterial species has led to a rapid proliferation of Cas9-related endonucleases, each with their own benefits and trade-offs. This family of tools is generally referred to as CRISPR. It comprises CRISPRa/CRISPRi acting as artificial transcription factors to regulate gene expression, high-fidelity CRISPR editing tools, drug-inducible endonucleases, molecular imaging tools for DNA binding interactions, and highly sensitive and specific detectors of both DNA and RNA. CRISPR systems are undergoing rapid development worldwide with application to diverse areas such as therapeutics, research tools, and ecological engineering. These developments have highlighted the potential safety issues inherent in a powerful genome editing technology.

Edits on 1 May 2018
Alexander Honkala"Added citations to earlier content and extended conclusions."
Alexander Honkala edited on 1 May 2018 2:38 am
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Article (+509 characters)

Article

CRISPR has been rapidly adopted in biotechnology research as it offers rapid genetic editing at a fraction of the time and cost of previous approaches. Whereas previous gene-editing approaches required protein engineering for each edit, CRISPR can be re-directed to a new site in the genome through supply of a new gRNA (guide RNA) complementary to the site of interest. While the first CRISPR variants based around native Cas9 suffered from high off-target mutagenesis rates, protein engineering and the discovery of additional CRISPR variations in bacterial species has led to a rapid proliferation of Cas9-related endonucleases, each with their own benefits and trade-offs. This family of tools is generally referred to as CRISPR. It comprises CRISPR-A/I acting as artificial transcription factors, high-fidelity CRISPR editing tools, drug-inducible endonucleases, and molecular imaging tools for DNA binding interactions. CRISPR systems are undergoing rapid development worldwide with application to diverse areas such as therapeutics, research tools, and ecological engineering. These developments have highlighted the potential safety issues inherent in a powerful genome editing technology, including their potential misuse and remediation thereof. Regulatory bodies have yet to issue specific guidelines for the safe use of CRISPR in therapeutics or any other systems, although such regulation will eventually prove necessary.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila edited on 30 Apr 2018 11:34 pm
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CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated casCas genes.

Article

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated casCas genes. 

Alexander Honkala
Alexander Honkala edited on 30 Apr 2018 8:46 pm
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Article (+925 characters)

Article



CRISPR has been rapidly adopted in biotechnology research as it offers rapid genetic editing at a fraction of the time and cost of previous approaches. Whereas previous gene-editing approaches required protein engineering for each edit, CRISPR can be re-directed to a new site in the genome through supply of a new gRNA (guide RNA) complementary to the site of interest. While the first CRISPR variants based around native Cas9 suffered from high off-target mutagenesis rates, protein engineering and the discovery of additional CRISPR variations in bacterial species has led to a rapid proliferation of Cas9-related endonucleases, each with their own benefits and trade-offs. This family of tools is generally referred to as CRISPR. It comprises CRISPR-A/I acting as artificial transcription factors, high-fidelity CRISPR editing tools, drug-inducible endonucleases, and molecular imaging tools for DNA binding interactions.

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Dawson Sewell
Dawson Sewell edited on 29 Apr 2018 9:54 pm
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Dawson Sewell
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CRISPR

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeatrepeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated cas genes.

Article

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeatrepeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acidsnucleic acids, such as viral DNAviral DNA and bacterial plasmidsplasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated cas genes. 



The CRISPR response evolved within Bacteria and Archaea as a defense against attacks by one of the most abundant life forms on the planet — bacteriophages , and are present in the majority of Bacterial and Archaeal genomes. Several defense responses evolved over time as a defense to attacks from bacteriophages such as blocking absorption of bacteriophage DNA, prevention of bacteriophage DNA injection, restriction of foreign DNA, and abortive strategies. The CRISPR and cas system works with DNA repair and recombination genes as a part of an abortive strategy; where CRISPR is responsible for targeting specific foreign DNA elements and cas genes/enzymes are responsible for providing resistance and adaptive responses to those targeted elements.

Dawson Sewell
Dawson Sewell edited on 29 Apr 2018 2:33 pm
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CRISPR

Crispr

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs).

Article



Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs).

Related Topics

Edits on 18 Jan 2018
Alex Dean
Alex Dean edited on 18 Jan 2018 12:56 am

Further reading

Author
Title
Link

Emily Mullin

U.S. Doctors Plan to Treat Cancer Patients Using CRISPR