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CRISPR-Cas9

CRISPR-Cas9

CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing system. CRISPR systems provides immunity to bacteria and archaea from viruses and has been adapted for use as a genome editing tool capable of knocking out genes and rewriting genetic sequences in animal, plant and fungi. CRISPR-Cas9 is being adapted to other applications outside genome editing.

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Edits on 1 May 2019
Craig Clarke
Craig Clarke approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 1 May 2019 8:43 pm
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Editas MedicineEditas Medicine is developing a CRISPR-Cas9 therapy for Leber Hereditary Amaurosis . Autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, choroidal neovascularization and Age-Related Macular Degeneration are forms of blindness that are being tested with CRISPR-Cas9 preclinically in animal models .

Dave Yen"Added link to TEDTalk from Jennifer Doudna"
Dave Yen edited on 1 May 2019 7:45 pm
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Date
Link

TED - How CRISPR let's us edit our DNA | Jennifer Doudna

11/12/2015

Edits on 12 Dec 2018
Alex Dean"Removing extra whitespace"
Alex Dean edited on 12 Dec 2018 6:05 pm
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Cas9 is the nuclease enzyme that does the cutting in the Type II CRISPR systems used by Streptococcus thermophilis . The function of Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) sequences that are part of a bacterial immune system, was discovered in the yogurt bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus . Phillipe Horvath and Rodolphe Barrangou of Danisco (later DuPont) made that discovery and in 2007 reported in Science that the bacteria incorporate sequences from phage viruses they have been exposed to as spacers in the CRISPR region which gave the bacteria resistance to those phage viruses . DuPont has patented a technique of exposing bacteria to different phage viruses and uses CRISPR sequences to tell them which ones have acquired resistance, something that helps them avoid phage viruses spoiling their yogurt .

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CRISPR Therapeutics and Vertex Pharmaceuticals are using CRISPR-Cas9 outside the body to correct a genetic mutation in blood cells of patients with Beta-Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease . Clinical trials for these diseases using CRISPR have been put on hold in the US to resolve questions about safety .



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Edits on 14 Nov 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 14 Nov 2018 6:48 pm
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Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 14 Nov 2018 6:27 pm
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Edits on 12 Nov 2018
Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna edited on 12 Nov 2018 9:52 pm
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Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type

A CRISPR-Cas9 System for Genetic Engineering of Filamentous Fungi

Christina S. Nødvig, Jakob B. Nielsen, Martin E. Kogle, Uffe H. Mortensen

Journal

A CRISPR-Cas9-based gene drive platform for genetic interaction analysis in Candida albicans

Rebecca S Shapiro, Alejandro Chavez, Caroline B M Porter, Meagan Hamblin, Christian S Kaas, James E Dicarlo, Guisheng Zeng, Xiaoli Xu, Alexey V Revtovich, Natalia V Kirienko, Yue Wang, George M Church, James J Collins

Journal

Safeguarding CRISPR-Cas9 gene drives in yeast

James E Dicarlo, Alejandro Chavez, Sven L Dietz, Kevin M Esvelt, George M Church

Journal

Edits on 9 Nov 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 9 Nov 2018 12:41 am
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CRISPR TherapeuticsCRISPR Therapeutics and Vertex Pharmaceuticals are using CRISPR-Cas9 outside the body to correct a genetic mutation in blood cells of patients with Beta-Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease . Clinical trials for these diseases using CRISPR have been put on hold in the US to resolve questions about safety .

Edits on 6 Nov 2018
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 6 Nov 2018 2:21 am
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Edits on 1 Nov 2018
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 1 Nov 2018 1:34 pm
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CRISPR-Cas9

CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing system. TheCRISPR systemsystems originatesprovides inimmunity to bacteria providingand immunityarchaea tofrom viruses and has been adapted for use as a genome editing tool capable of knocking out genes and rewriting genetic sequences in animal, plant and fungi. CRISPR-Cas9 is being adapted to other applications outside genome editing.

Edits on 30 Oct 2018
Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 30 Oct 2018 10:46 pm
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There is a patent dispute over the invention of CRISPR-Cas9 technology specifically for use in human cells, between Doudna’s research team and Feng Zhang’s group at the Broad Institute (MIT and Harvard) . Zhang’s research group and George ChurchGeorge Church’s lab at Harvard Medical School, each published Science papers in 2013 showing they had modified CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genome in human and mouse cells . The Broad Institute’s US patent, the first of several for mammalian use of CRISPR, is under appeal . Citing lack of novelty, the European patent office has revoked the first patent obtained by the Broad Institute and has granted patents to the University of California and University of Vienna . The first is for using the CRISPR-Cas9 system across prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems and the second is for a modified form of CRISPR-Cas9 to regulate gene expression.

Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna edited on 30 Oct 2018 10:01 pm
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Further reading (+1 rows) (+3 cells) (+180 characters)

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type

Xconomy: Pre-Existing Immunity to CRISPR Found in 96% of People in Study



Web

Edits on 3 Oct 2018
Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 3 Oct 2018 7:02 pm
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There is a patent dispute over the invention of CRISPR-Cas9 technology specifically for use in human cells, between Doudna’s research team and Feng Zhang’s group at the Broad Institute (MIT and Harvard) . Zhang’s research group and George Church’s lab at Harvard Medical SchoolHarvard Medical School, each published Science papers in 2013 showing they had modified CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genome in human and mouse cells . The Broad Institute’s US patent, the first of several for mammalian use of CRISPR, is under appeal . Citing lack of novelty, the European patent office has revoked the first patent obtained by the Broad Institute and has granted patents to the University of California and University of Vienna . The first is for using the CRISPR-Cas9 system across prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems and the second is for a modified form of CRISPR-Cas9 to regulate gene expression.

Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 3 Oct 2018 7:02 pm
Edits made to:
Article (+18/-18 characters)

Article

Cas9 is the nuclease enzyme that does the cutting in the Type II CRISPR systems used by Streptococcus thermophilis . The function of Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) sequences that are part of a bacterial immune system, was discovered in the yogurt bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus . Phillipe Horvath and Rodolphe BarrangouRodolphe Barrangou of Danisco (later DuPont) made that discovery and in 2007 reported in Science that the bacteria incorporate sequences from phage viruses they have been exposed to as spacers in the CRISPR region which gave the bacteria resistance to those phage viruses . DuPont has patented a technique of exposing bacteria to different phage viruses and uses CRISPR sequences to tell them which ones have acquired resistance, something that helps them avoid phage viruses spoiling their yogurt .

Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 3 Oct 2018 7:01 pm
Edits made to:
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Horvath and Barrangou teamed up with Virginjus Siksnys at Vilnius University, Lithuania and they published how CRISPR works with Cas9 in 2012 . Around the same time UC Berkeley’s Jennifer DoudnaJennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier now at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin also described in Science how Cas9 works in the CRISPR system . Because they also engineered a simpler version of CRISPR that could likely to work in other organisms including human cells , this transformed this bacterial immune function into a usable biotechnology tool.

Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 3 Oct 2018 7:01 pm
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CRISPR can fix the Cystic FibrosisCystic Fibrosis (CF) mutation in lung cells, intestinal cells, and iPS cells derived from patients . Editas Medicine and CRISPR Therapeutics are working towards a therapy to use on CF patients .

Carla Faraguna
Carla Faraguna approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 3 Oct 2018 7:01 pm
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Cas9Cas9 is the nuclease enzyme that does the cutting in the Type II CRISPR systems used by Streptococcus thermophilis . The function of Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) sequences that are part of a bacterial immune system, was discovered in the yogurt bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus . Phillipe Horvath and Rodolphe Barrangou of Danisco (later DuPont) made that discovery and in 2007 reported in Science that the bacteria incorporate sequences from phage viruses they have been exposed to as spacers in the CRISPR region which gave the bacteria resistance to those phage viruses . DuPont has patented a technique of exposing bacteria to different phage viruses and uses CRISPR sequences to tell them which ones have acquired resistance, something that helps them avoid phage viruses spoiling their yogurt .

Edits on 3 Oct 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 3 Oct 2018 4:10 am
Edits made to:
Article (+22/-22 characters)

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CRISPR Therapeutics and Vertex PharmaceuticalsVertex Pharmaceuticals are using CRISPR-Cas9 outside the body to correct a genetic mutation in blood cells of patients with Beta-Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease . Clinical trials for these diseases using CRISPR have been put on hold in the US to resolve questions about safety .

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 3 Oct 2018 12:36 am
Edits made to:
Article (-4 characters)

Article

Cas9 is the nuclease enzyme that does the cutting in the Type II CRISPR systems used by Streptococcus thermophilis . The function of Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) sequences that are part of a bacterial immune system, was discovered in the yogurt bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus . Phillipe Horvath and Rodolphe Barrangou of Danisco (later DuPont) made that discovery and in 2007 and reported in Science that the bacteria incorporate sequences from phage viruses they have been exposed to as spacers in the CRISPR region which gave the bacteria resistance to those phage viruses . DuPont has patented a technique of exposing bacteria to different phage viruses and uses CRISPR sequences to tell them which ones have acquired resistance, something that helps them avoid phage viruses spoiling their yogurt .

Edits on 8 Sep 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 8 Sep 2018 5:33 am
Edits made to:
Article (+3/-3 characters)

Article

There is a patent dispute over the invention of CRISPR-Cas9 technology specifically for use in human cells, between Doudna’s research team and Feng Zhang’s group at the Broad Institute (MITMIT and Harvard) . Zhang’s research group and George Church’s lab at Harvard Medical School, each published Science papers in 2013 showing they had modified CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the genome in human and mouse cells . The Broad Institute’s US patent, the first of several for mammalian use of CRISPR, is under appeal . Citing lack of novelty, the European patent office has revoked the first patent obtained by the Broad Institute and has granted patents to the University of California and University of Vienna . The first is for using the CRISPR-Cas9 system across prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems and the second is for a modified form of CRISPR-Cas9 to regulate gene expression.

Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 8 Sep 2018 5:31 am
Edits made to:
Article (+5/-5 characters)

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There are clinical trials at Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, ChinaChina and in the US by University of Pennsylvania researchers where the human immune cells, T-cells are removed from patients, modified by CRISPR-Cas9 in a way that enhances their ability to fight cancer, and put back into the patients .