The effector protein Cas12e (formerly CasX) was identified in a collaboration between Jillian Banfield's and Jennifer Doudna's research groups at University of California, Berkeley using metagenomics sequencing in groundwater and sediment samples. Genomic database sequences show Cas12e present in two different phyla, Deltaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes. RNA-dependent interference activity by CRISPR-Cas12e was shown in E. coli by the ability of the system to inhibit DNA transformation in plasmid interference assays.Cas12d (formerly CasY) was identified in the same 2017 Nature publication, but found in the genomes of bacteria belonging to the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR).
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- CRISPR/Cas ToolsClustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins perform adaptive immune functions in prokaryotic organisms defending against foreign nucleic acids such as viruses. CRISPR/Cas tools have been adapted for use in genome editing and other DNA and RNA targeting applications.
- CRISPRClustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes.
- CRISPR-Cas12aCRISPR-Cas12a is is a genome editing tool similar to CRISPR-Cas9. CRISPR-Cas12a is a set of RNA guided DNA targeting proteins capable of producing targeted double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks, targeted single-stranded DNA breaks, and indiscriminate ssDNA degradation in trans. The effector protein Cas12a is also known at Cpf1.
- CRISPR-Cas12dCRISPR-Cas12d belongs to the Type V CRISPR systems that confer bacterial immunity against viruses and contains the Class II effector protein Cas12d.
- CRISPR-Cas9CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing system. CRISPR systems provides immunity to bacteria and archaea from viruses and has been adapted for use as a genome editing tool capable of knocking out genes and rewriting genetic sequences in animal, plant and fungi. CRISPR-Cas9 is being adapted to other applications outside genome editing.