CRISPR-Cas12d belongs to the Type V CRISPR systems, where Cas12d (formerly known as CasY) is a Class II effector protein. The most widely known Class II effector protein, Cas9 in the Type II system binds and cleaves double-stranded DNA targets that match its guide crRNA and has been adapted as a genome editing tool. Cas12d is less well studied but has been shown to be capable of RNA-guided DNA targeting by demonstrating guide RNA-guided DNA interference activity. Cas12d, originally identified as CasY, was pulled out of a search through DNA sequencing data from uncultivated natural microbial communities .
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- CRISPR-Cas12aCRISPR-Cas12a is is a genome editing tool similar to CRISPR-Cas9. CRISPR-Cas12a is a set of RNA guided DNA targeting proteins capable of producing targeted double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks, targeted single-stranded DNA breaks, and indiscriminate ssDNA degradation in trans.
- CRISPRClustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune response that provides immunity against foreign nucleic acids, such as viral DNA and bacterial plasmids, through the use of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) and associated Cas genes.
- CRISPR-Cas13A nucleic acid editing technology focusing on RNA, analogous to the CRISPR-Cas9 system
- CRISPR-Cas3CRISPR-Cas3 is a CRISPR protein complex that degrades foreign DNA. It uses an RNA guided protein complex called Cascade to recognize the target DNA sequence and the associated Cas3 protein to degrade the targeted sequence.
- CRISPR-Cas9CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome editing system. The system originates in bacteria providing immunity to viruses and has been adapted for use as a genome editing tool capable of knocking out genes and rewriting genetic sequences in animal, plant and fungi. CRISPR-Cas9 is being adapted to other applications outside genome editing.