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COVID-19 protocols

COVID-19 protocols

Policies, procedures, and organizational algorithms for mitigating COVID-19 risk.

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General guides

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COVID-19 Playbook

PreventEpidemics.org

Website with PDF resources

Jason D. Rowley
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Contact tracing protocols

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Contact tracing for COVID-19: New considerations for its practical application

McKinsey & Co.

Web blog/article

May 2020

Contact tracing in the context of COVID-18

World Health Organization (WHO)

PDF

COVID-19 Contact Tracing Playbook

ResolveToSaveLives.org

Website

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Jason D. Rowley
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General

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Travel during the COVID-19 Pandemic

U.S. CDC

Web/blog article

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Air travel requires spending time around large numbers of people, such as in security lines and communal gathering areas of airport terminals. Although many viruses do not spread easily on flights because of how air is circulated and filtered, social distancing is difficult on crowded flights. Sitting within 6 feet of others, sometimes for hours, could increase risk of contracting COVID-19.

Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 6 Aug, 2020
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COVID-19 Event Risk Assessment Planning Tool

Georgia Tech

Interactive website

Edits on 3 Aug, 2020
Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 3 Aug, 2020
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Before vaccines are proven effective and become widely available, government, organizations, and individuals can implement strategies to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 disease. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) include social distancing/physical distancing/ border closures, school closures, isolation of symptomatic individuals and their contacts and large-scale lockdown of populations. Most of these strategies involve behavior change. Evidence from prior pandemics, such as the 1918 influenza pandemic, suggest that behavior change is a necessary component of responding to the currentCOVID-19 pandemic.

Edits on 30 Jul, 2020
Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 30 Jul, 2020
Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 30 Jul, 2020
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Engineering controls

Engineering-based interventions, such as additions or modifications to HV/AC systems, implementation of dust suppression measures, and other solutions can be effective at limiting the spread of infectious respiratory diseases. Because they do not require behavior change on the part of individuals or oversight and enforcement measures by organizations.

Dust suppression

Dust suppression has been proven effective at reducing the number of airborne organisms. During World War I, sailors aboard U.S. Navy ships applied oil to floors and wool blankets to reduce the amount of dust in the air. Later studies indicate that the practice reduced airborne organisms by 75% to 90%. However, studies conducted on soldiers between 1944 and 1945 and on sailors between 1945 and 1946 failed to document a beneficial effect from oiling blankets and floors during outbreaks of acute respiratory disease.

Jason D. Rowley
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Other risk mitigation protocols
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Ground transportation

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Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jul, 2020
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Before vaccines are proven effective and become widely available, government, organizations, and individuals can implement strategies to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 disease. Most of these strategies involve behavior changebehavior change. Evidence from prior pandemics, such as the 1918 influenza pandemic, suggest that behavior change is a necessary component of responding to the current pandemic.

Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley approved a suggestion from Golden's AI on 29 Jul, 2020
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In the mid-1800s, Ignaz Semmelweis introduced hand-washing into the standard medical protocol for reducing infection risk. By 1848, one year after instituting a hand-washing policy in an obstetric clinic in AustriaAustria, maternal death rate had declined by 87 percent.

Jason D. Rowley
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Non-vaccine intervention

Before vaccines are proven effective and become widely available, government, organizations, and individuals can implement strategies to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 disease. Most of these strategies involve behavior change. Evidence from prior pandemics, such as the 1918 influenza pandemic, suggest that behavior change is a necessary component of responding to the current pandemic.

Allegrante et al published a review of U.S. CDC recommendations for individual behavior change to help reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. They suggest that adherence to these guidelines is dependent on an individual's relationship with multiple layers of society.

John P. Allegrante, PhD et al (May 2020) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.05.004

Allegrante et al find:

Such multilevel studies are necessary to further understand the influences on protective behavior and evaluate the effect of novel behavioral interventions, especially those that are digitally mediated, to facilitate adoption and maintenance of COVID-19‒preventive behaviors.
Evidence from military training centers

A 2005 meta-analysis of non-vaccine interventions to prevent infectious acute respiratory disease (ARD) in military training centers found many types of policies and protocols which result in lower rates of infection. The meta-analysis, published by Terrence Lee et al, evaluated a sample of 38 population-based studies.

  • 9 of 12 studies into mask-wearing supported the intervention.
  • 10 studies into various administrative controls such as cohorting military training units to reduce contact between units (4 studies), providing adequate personal space to reduce crowding (5), and cloth barriers between beds (1); and 14 studies supported the use of engineering controls such as increased indoor air dilution and ventilation (2), dust suppression (4), and air sterilization (8).
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A 2001 study of U.S. Army recruits found that hand-washing results in reduced outpatient visits for respiratory illnesses. A review of clinical records from 1996 through 1998 (representing 1,089,800 person-weeks) found that frequent hand-washers had fewer outpatient appointments for respiratory illnesses. After implementing a hand-washing program, researchers saw a 45% reduction in total outpatient visits for respiratory illness.

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Handwashing and respiratory illness among young adults in military training1

Margaret A.K Ryan, Rebecca S Christian, Julie Wohlrabe

Web

Knowledge and Adoption of Community Mitigation Efforts in Mexico During the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

Nancy J. Aburto, PhD, et al.

Web

2010

Preventing COVID-19 and Its Sequela: "There Is No Magic Bullet... It's Just Behaviors"

John P. Allegrante, M. Elaine Auld, Sundar Natarajan

Journal

August 2020

Selected nonvaccine interventions to prevent infectious acute respiratory disease

Terrence Lee, Nikki N. Jordan, Jose L. Sanchez, Joel C. Gaydos

Journal

April 2005

Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 29 Jul, 2020
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In the mid-1800s, Ignaz Semmelweis introduced hand-washing into the standard medical protocol for reducing infection risk. By 1848, one year after instituting a hand-washing policy in an obstetric clinic in Austria, maternal death rate had declined by 87 percent.

Edits on 27 Jul, 2020
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Jason D. Rowley
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Air transportation

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United Airlines to Maximize Ventilation System During Boarding and Deplaning

United Airlines

Press release

July 20, 2020

Edits on 23 Jul, 2020
Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 23 Jul, 2020
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Surface

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Jason D. Rowley
Jason D. Rowley edited on 23 Jul, 2020
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Donning and doffing

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