Bioprocessing is used in several emerging industries and technologies, including the production of renewable biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, therapeutic stem cells, gene therapy vectors, and new vaccines. The Food and Drug Administration imposes stringent regulations on bioprocessing in the biotech industry.
Bioprocessing is another way to describe biomanufacturing. This area includes the design and development of methods and equipment for manufacturing products from biological materials. The products that are made include cosmetics, fuel, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, nutraceuticals, polymers, paper, food, and animal feed.
Bioprocessing can be divided in three stages. Stage I : Upstream processing which involves preparation of liquid medium, separation of particulate and inhibitory chemicals from the medium, sterilization, air purification etc. Upstream processes include selection of a microbial strain characterized by the ability to synthesize a specific product having the desired commercial value. This strain then is subjected to improvement protocols to maximize the ability of the strain to synthesize economical amounts of the product. Included in the upstream phase is the fermentation process itself, which usually is carried out in large tanks known as fermenters or bioreactors.
Stage II: Fermentation which involves the conversion of substrates to desired product with the help of biological agents such as microorganisms.
Stage III: Downstream processing, which involves separation of cells from the fermentation broth, purification and concentration of desired product and waste disposal or recycle.
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- FermentationThe anaerobic enzymatic conversion of organic compounds, especially carbohydrates, coupling the oxidation and reduction of nad/h and the generation of adenosine triphosphate (atp).
- Cell-based meatCell-based meat, also known as cultured meat or clean meat, is meat that is comprised of muscle tissue grown from cultured cells.
- Clean meatClean meat is a term coined by The Good Food Institute representing meat products made using cellular agriculture and tissue engineering techniques. Other terms for clean meat include: cultured meat, in-vitro meat, and synthetic meat.
- BioreactorBioreactors create an internal environments that support proliferation and differentiation of cells for the manufacturing of biological products.