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Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines.

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Edits on 27 Jan 2020
Dawson Sewell
Dawson Sewell edited on 27 Jan 2020 10:09 pm
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Also known as
AI
Edits on 6 Dec 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 6 Dec 2019 4:38 am
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Timeline (+1 events) (+400 characters)

Timeline

March 2, 2017

A computer's newfound 'intuition' beats world poker champs

Up until this point, most games in which AI competes with humans have all the information needed to make the decision was on the board. In Texas Hold’em, the players don’t see each other’s cards, giving each of them a different view of the game. The computer program makes decisions based on incomplete information as humans do in real life.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 6 Dec 2019 3:43 am
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Article

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks (ANN). Artificial neural network (ANN) processing devices can be algorithms or actual hardware that are loosely modeled after the neuronal structure of the mammalian cerebral cortex. ANN devices are designed to classify information in the same way a human brain does. An ANN system is taught to recognize items such as images and classify them based on their elements. The system makes statements, decisions or predictions. A feedback loop enables “learning” as it can be told whether decisions are right or wrong and then modify the approach in the future. Deep learning is used in online language translation and automated face-tagging in social media. Deep learning has been used to develop computer vision to detect breast cancer based on mammogram scans. Training on neural networks is also used for natural language processing (NLP) and generation (NLG).

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 8:58 pm
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Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Using neuroscience to develop artificial intelligence



Web

February 15, 2019

Timeline

November 20, 2019

In-store AI diabetic retinopathy tests

With the launch of artificial intelligence-powered diabetic retinopathy eye exams at its in-store CarePortMD clinics in Delaware and Pennsylvania, Albertsons has become the first retailer to offer the diagnostic technology.

September 23, 2018

Artificial Intelligence inspired by sense of smell rather than the visual system

Scientists on how organisms process chemical information uncovered coding strategies relevant to problems in AI.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 7:47 pm
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Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics - UK-RAS White Paper





2018

Timeline

June 8, 2015

Artificial Intelligence Solved the Mystery of Flatworm Regeneration

Researchers at Tufts University in Massachusetts aimed to find out what happens in the cells for two halves of what was once a single flatworm to become two complete, independent worms. In their paper published in PLOS Computational Biology, the researchers used artificial intelligence to solve the mystery in 42 hours. 



February 25, 2015

Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning

Towards achieving artificial general intelligence, a research team built on DeepMind’s DQN and published in Nature that it learns to play different Atari games using meaningful abstraction from previous games it has played. The computer uses deep multitask reinforcement learning combined with deep-transfer learning to enable it to sue the same deep neural network across different types of games.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 7:20 pm
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Timeline (+3 events) (+1397 characters)
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Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Artificial intelligence is changing the way we farm

Jeremy Deaton

Web

July 24, 2019

Patenting Considerations for Artificial Intelligence in Biotech and Synthetic Biology



Web



Timeline

December 5, 2019

Meet Mira: The App Intersecting Beauty And Artificial Intelligence

Mira aggregates reviews from the internet and provides synopses and click-throughs to purchase products and serves as a community for consumers to ask and answer questions. The app leverages facial recognition and AI to match beauty consumers with products that match their face shape, skin tone, skin type and price range.

December 5, 2019

Robotics and AI law think tank launches in Singapore

The Centre for Technology, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence & the Law (TRAIL) has been set up by the National University of Singapore Faculty of Law (NUS Law). It's remit is ‘to research into legal, ethical, policy, philosophical and regulatory questions associated with the use and development of information technology (IT), artificial intelligence (AI), data analytics and robotics in the practice of law’.

August 11, 2017

Artificial intelligence identifies plant species for science

Computer algorithms trained on the images of thousands of preserved plants have learned to automatically identify species that have been pressed, dried and mounted on herbarium sheets. The work, published in BMC Evolutionary Biology on 11 August 1, is the first attempt to use deep learning — an artificial-intelligence technique that teaches neural networks using large, complex data sets — to tackle the difficult taxonomic task of identifying species in natural-history collections.

Edits on 5 Dec 2019
Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 2:58 am
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People (+8 rows) (+8 cells) (+94 characters)

People

Name
Role
LinkedIn

Amit Singhal





Andrew Ng





Ginni Rometty





Greg Brockman





Jeff Dean





John McCarthy





Sebastian Thrun





Yann LeCun





Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 2:39 am
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Documentaries, videos and podcasts (+4 rows) (+11 cells) (+518 characters)

Documentaries, videos and podcasts

Title
Date
Link

Andrew Ng: Artificial Intelligence is the New Electricity

Feb 2, 2017

How does IBM Watson work?

Nov 12, 2018

Machine Learning: Living in the Age of AI | A WIRED Film

Jun 20, 2019

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 2:21 am
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Timeline (+1 events) (+217 characters)

Timeline

December 5, 2018

Waymo, the self-driving subsidiary of Alphabet, launched its first commercial autonomous ride-hailing service in the Phoenix suburbs.

Human drivers are in every vehicle so they can monitor or take control when needed.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 5 Dec 2019 2:12 am
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Timeline (+2 events) (+668 characters)

Timeline

December 29, 2011

Google computers teach themselves to recognize cats

In the paper, "Building high-level features using large scale unsupervised learning", researchers at Stanford and Google including Jeff Dean and Andrew Ng showed that it was possible to achieve a face detector with only unlabeled data.

February 17, 2011

IBM's Watson crowned trivia king

Cognitive computing engine Watson beat champion players of the TV game show Jeopardy!, and claimed a $1 million prize. The Jeopardy task requires coming up with answers to natural language questions over broad domains of knowledge otherwise known as unstructured data, which was considered a milestone. Watson was trained by data as opposed to rules.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Dec 2019 9:42 pm
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Timeline (+1 events) (+297 characters)

Timeline

1988

A statistical approach to language translation

This publication by IBM introduced the principles of probability into the until-then rule-driven field of machine learning. It is considered a leap in terms of mimicking the cognitive process of the human brain and forms the basis of machine learning.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Dec 2019 9:34 pm
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Timeline (+1/-1 events) (+320/-168 characters)

Timeline

December 1973

The Dartmouth Conference: Its Reports and Results

The Dartmouth Conference was a summer workshop where professor John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence”.

December 1956

The Dartmouth Conference

The Dartmouth Conference was a summer workshop where professor John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence” as a branch of science. The four organizers of the 1956 Dartmouth Workshop on artificial intelligence were John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon.

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Dec 2019 9:26 pm
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Timeline (+3 events) (+1046 characters)
Article (+219 characters)

Article

The concept of artificial intelligence has been existent as early as the Ancient period. In China, a life-sized human automaton was made by a mechanical engineer named Yan Shi in 1000 BC. In Egypt, a Greek mathematician popularly known as Hero of Alexandria has his own works on programmable automata which presages the modern discipline of cybernetics. In 1637, Rene Descartes, identified the division between machines that might one day learn to perform a specific task and those that would be able to adapt to any job, like the difference between narrow and general AI.

Timeline

December 4, 1980

Digital Equipment Corporation’s XCON expert learning system was deployed in 1980 and was the first example of a real world use of AI

The XCON system checked sales orders and designed the layout of each computer order, which allowed Digital to ship components directly to the consumer site, eliminating the need for additional final assembly facilities. By 1986 the system was credited with generating annual savings for the company of $40 million.

December 1973

The Dartmouth Conference: Its Reports and Results

The Dartmouth Conference was a summer workshop where professor John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence”.

January 1, 1966

ELIZA---a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine

ELIZA, developed at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum, is thought to be the world’s first chatbot. ELIZA represented an early implementation of natural language processing, which aims to teach computers to communicate with us in human language, rather than to require us to program them in computer code, or interact through a user interface. 

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Dec 2019 8:50 pm
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Article (+1284 characters)
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Article



Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are often used interchangeably. AI is the broader concept of the ability of machines to carry out tasks in a manner that is considered “smart”. ML is a technique for realizing AI and it is an application of AI where machines are given access to data from which they learn form themselves. 



Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks. Artificial neural network (ANN) processing devices can be algorithms or actual hardware that are loosely modeled after the neuronal structure of the mammalian cerebral cortex. ANN devices are designed to classify information in the same way a human brain does. An ANN system is taught to recognize items such as images and classify them based on their elements. The system makes statements, decisions or predictions. A feedback loop enables “learning” as it can be told whether decisions are right or wrong and then modify the approach in the future. Deep learning is used in online language translation and automated face-tagging in social media. Deep learning has been used to develop computer vision to detect breast cancer based on mammogram scans. Training on neural networks is also used for natural language processing (NLP) and generation (NLG).



Related Topics

Meredith Hanel
Meredith Hanel edited on 4 Dec 2019 7:32 pm
Edits made to:
Article (+545 characters)
Further reading (+2 rows) (+7 cells) (+387 characters)

Article



Artificial Intelligence, designed to perform a narrow task such as facial recognition, internet searches or driving a car, is known as narrow AI, weak AI or applied AI. Narrow AI can outperform humans at specific task such as solving equations. General AI, AGI or strong AI refer to AI with the ability to outperform humans at nearly every cognitive task. The timing of the arrival of human-level AI is not known but estimated by some experts to be centuries away and by researchers at the 2015 Puerto Rico Conference to be expected before 2060.

Further reading

Title
Author
Link
Type
Date

Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence - Future of Life Institute



Web

June 1, 2016

Many Experts Say We Shouldnt Worry About Superintelligent Ai Theyre Wrong - IEEE Spectrum



Web



Edits on 7 Jun 2019
Dawson Sewell
Dawson Sewell edited on 7 Jun 2019 1:15 pm
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Topic thumbnail

Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence exhibited by machines.

Edits on 6 Feb 2019
Golden AI
Golden AI edited on 6 Feb 2019 9:44 pm
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Infobox

Edits on 6 Aug 2018
Thomas Shaddox"a more neutral claim with citation"
Thomas Shaddox edited on 6 Aug 2018 10:58 pm
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Article

In 1956 AI was formally founded as an academic discipline.

In 1956 the term "artificial intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy for his proposed research project to investigate whether features of intelligence could be simulated by computers.

Edits on 29 Jul 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila edited on 29 Jul 2018 2:59 am
Edits made to:
Article (+16/-16 characters)

Article

Artificial intelligence is intelligence exhibited by machines. On the other hand, natural intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by humans and animals. The study and development of AI aims to simulate human functions and behavior. In computer sciencecomputer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents," any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics cognitive functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as learning and problem solving.

Edits on 18 Jul 2018
Jude Gomila
Jude Gomila edited on 18 Jul 2018 1:08 am