Artificial intelligence is intelligence exhibited by machines. On the other hand, natural intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by humans and animals. The study and development of AI aims to simulate human functions and behavior. In computer science, the field of AI research defines itself as the study of "intelligent agents," any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics cognitive functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as learning and problem solving.
The concept of artificial intelligence has been existent as early as the Ancient period. In China, a life-sized human automaton was made by a mechanical engineer named Yan Shi in 1000 BC. In Egypt, a Greek mathematician popularly known as Hero of Alexandria has his own works on programmable automata which presages the modern discipline of cybernetics.
In 1956 the term "artificial intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy for his proposed research project to investigate whether features of intelligence could be simulated by computers.
In the 20th century, AI has continually developed and still advancing. The technological advances boosted the understanding of theories and forged techniques essential to artificial intelligence. AI is an integral part of the technology industry. AI techniques and advancements have been aiding in various fields in science and technology in solving challenges.
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- Machine learningA field of computer science enabling computers to learn.
- Natural language processing (NLP)Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a field of computer science wherein computer and human languages interact. Programming computers to process vast amount of natural language data.
- Natural language understandingNatural Language Understanding (NLU) is a subtopic of natural language processing in artificial intelligence that deals with machine reading comprehension. NLU is considered an AI-hard problem.